Systems Engineering and Electronics

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Discrete differential evolution algorithm for integer linear bilevel programming problems

Hong Li1,*, Li Zhang1, and Yongchang Jiao2   

  1. 1. School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China; 2. School of Electronics Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
  • Online:2016-08-24 Published:2010-01-03


A discrete differential evolution algorithm combined with the branch and bound method is developed to solve the in- teger linear bilevel programming problems, in which both upper level and lower level variables are forced to be integer. An integer coding for upper level variables is adopted, and then a discrete differential evolution algorithm with an improved feasibility-based comparison is developed to directly explore the integer solution at the upper level. For a given upper level integer variable, the lower level integer programming problem is solved by the existing branch and bound algorithm to obtain the optimal integer solution at the lower level. In the same framework of the algorithm, two other constraint handling methods, i.e. the penalty function method and the feasibility-based comparison method are also tested. The experimental results demonstrate that the discrete differential evolution algorithm with different constraint handling methods is effective in finding the global optimal integer solutions, but the improved constraint handling method performs better than two compared constraint handling methods.