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A review of mobile robot motion planning methods: from classical motion planning workflows to reinforcement learning-based architectures
Lu DONG, Zichen HE, Chunwei SONG, Changyin SUN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 439-459.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000051
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Motion planning is critical to realize the autonomous operation of mobile robots. As the complexity and randomness of robot application scenarios increase, the planning capability of the classical hierarchical motion planners is challenged. With the development of machine learning, the deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based motion planner has gradually become a research hotspot due to its several advantageous feature. The DRL-based motion planner is model-free and does not rely on the prior structured map. Most importantly, the DRL-based motion planner achieves the unification of the global planner and the local planner. In this paper, we provide a systematic review of various motion planning methods. Firstly, we summarize the representative and state-of-the-art works for each submodule of the classical motion planning architecture and analyze their performance features. Then, we concentrate on summarizing reinforcement learning (RL)-based motion planning approaches, including motion planners combined with RL improvements, map-free RL-based motion planners, and multi-robot cooperative planning methods. Finally, we analyze the urgent challenges faced by these mainstream RL-based motion planners in detail, review some state-of-the-art works for these issues, and propose suggestions for future research.

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Survey on autonomous task scheduling technology for Earth observation satellites
Jian WU, Yuning CHEN, Yongming HE, Lining XING, Yangrui HU
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1176-1189.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000141
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How to make use of limited onboard resources for complex and heavy space tasks has attracted much attention. With the continuous improvement on satellite payload capacity and the increasing complexity of observation requirements, the importance of satellite autonomous task scheduling research has gradually increased. This article first gives the problem description and mathematical model for the satellite autonomous task scheduling and then follows the steps of “satellite autonomous task scheduling, centralized autonomous collaborative task scheduling architecture, distributed autonomous collaborative task scheduling architecture, solution algorithm". Finally, facing the complex and changeable environment situation, this article proposes the future direction of satellite autonomous task scheduling.

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DQN-based decentralized multi-agent JSAP resource allocation for UAV swarm communication
Jie LI, Xiaoyu DANG, Sai LI
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 289-298.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000045
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It is essential to maximize capacity while satisfying the transmission time delay of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm communication system. In order to address this challenge, a dynamic decentralized optimization mechanism is presented for the realization of joint spectrum and power (JSAP) resource allocation based on deep Q-learning networks (DQNs). Each UAV to UAV (U2U) link is regarded as an agent that is capable of identifying the optimal spectrum and power to communicate with one another. The convolutional neural network, target network, and experience replay are adopted while training. The findings of the simulation indicate that the proposed method has the potential to improve both communication capacity and probability of successful data transmission when compared with random centralized assignment and multichannel access methods.

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A spawning particle filter for defocused moving target detection in GNSS-based passive radar
Hongcheng ZENG, Jiadong DENG, Pengbo WANG, Xinkai ZHOU, Wei YANG, Jie CHEN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (5): 1085-1100.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000033
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Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based passive radar (GBPR) has been widely used in remote sensing applications. However, for moving target detection (MTD), the quadratic phase error (QPE) introduced by the non-cooperative target motion is usually difficult to be compensated, as the low power level of the GBPR echo signal renders the estimation of the Doppler rate less effective. Consequently, the moving target in GBPR image is usually defocused, which aggravates the difficulty of target detection even further. In this paper, a spawning particle filter (SPF) is proposed for defocused MTD. Firstly, the measurement model and the likelihood ratio function (LRF) of the defocused point-like target image are deduced. Then, a spawning particle set is generated for subsequent target detection, with reference to traditional particles in particle filter (PF) as their parent. After that, based on the PF estimator, the SPF algorithm and its sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) implementation are proposed with a novel amplitude estimation method to decrease the target state dimension. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed SPF is demonstrated by numerical simulations and preliminary experimental results, showing that the target range and Doppler can be estimated accurately.

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Recognition and interfere deceptive behavior based on inverse reinforcement learning and game theory
Yunxiu ZENG, Kai XU
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 270-288.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000012
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In real-time strategy (RTS) games, the ability of recognizing other players’ goals is important for creating artifical intelligence (AI) players. However, most current goal recognition methods do not take the player ’s deceptive behavior into account which often occurs in RTS game scenarios, resulting in poor recognition results. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes goal recognition for deceptive agent, which is an extended goal recognition method applying the deductive reason method (from general to special) to model the deceptive agent’s behavioral strategy. First of all, the general deceptive behavior model is proposed to abstract features of deception, and then these features are applied to construct a behavior strategy that best matches the deceiver’s historical behavior data by the inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) method. Final, to interfere with the deceptive behavior implementation, we construct a game model to describe the confrontation scenario and the most effective interference measures.

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Design and implementation of data-driven predictive cloud control system
Runze GAO, Yuanqing XIA, Li DAI, Zhongqi SUN, Yufeng ZHAN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1258-1268.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000146
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The rapid increase of the scale and the complexity of the controlled plants bring new challenges such as computing power and storage for conventional control systems. Cloud computing is concerned as a powerful solution to handle complex large-scale control missions by using sufficient computing resources. However, the computing ability enables more complex devices and more data to be involved and most of the data have not been fully utilized. Meanwhile, it is even impossible to obtain an accurate model of each device in the complex control systems for the model-based control algorithms. Therefore, motivated by the above reasons, we propose a data-driven predictive cloud control system. To achieve the proposed system, a practical data-driven predictive cloud control testbed is established and together a cloud-edge communication scheme is developed. Finally, the simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

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Super-resolution DOA estimation for correlated off-grid signals via deep estimator
Shuang WU, Ye YUAN, Weike ZHANG, Naichang YUAN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1096-1107.   DOI: 10.21629/JSEE.2022.00074
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This paper develops a deep estimator framework of deep convolution networks (DCNs) for super-resolution direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. In addition to the scenario of correlated signals, the quantization errors of the DCN are the major challenge. In our deep estimator framework, one DCN is used for spectrum estimation with quantization errors, and the remaining two DCNs are used to estimate quantization errors. We propose training our estimator using the spatial sampled covariance matrix directly as our deep estimator’s input without any feature extraction operation. Then, we reconstruct the original spatial spectrum from the spectrum estimate and quantization errors estimate. Also, the feasibility of the proposed deep estimator is analyzed in detail in this paper. Once the deep estimator is appropriately trained, it can recover the correlated signals’ spatial spectrum fast and accurately. Simulation results show that our estimator performs well in both resolution and estimation error compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms.

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Torque estimation for robotic joint with harmonic drive transmission based on system dynamic characteristics
Minghong ZHU, Shu XIAO, Fei YU
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1320-1331.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000151
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In the applications of joint control and robot movement, the joint torque estimation has been treated as an effective technique and widely used. Researches are made to analyze the kinematic and compliance model of the robot joint with harmonic drive to acquire high precision torque output. Through analyzing the structures of the harmonic drive and experiment apparatus, a scheme of the proposed joint torque estimation method based on both the dynamic characteristics and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is designed and built. Based on research and scheme, torque estimation methods in view of only harmonic drive compliance model and compliance model with the Kalman filter are simulated as guidance and reference to promote the research on the torque estimation technique. Finally, a promoted torque estimation method depending on both harmonic drive compliance model and UKF is designed, and simulation results compared with the measurements of a commercial torque sensor, have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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A deep reinforcement learning method for multi-stage equipment development planning in uncertain environments
Peng LIU, Boyuan XIA, Zhiwei YANG, Jichao LI, Yuejin TAN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1159-1175.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000140
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Equipment development planning (EDP) is usually a long-term process often performed in an environment with high uncertainty. The traditional multi-stage dynamic programming cannot cope with this kind of uncertainty with unpredictable situations. To deal with this problem, a multi-stage EDP model based on a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithm is proposed to respond quickly to any environmental changes within a reasonable range. Firstly, the basic problem of multi-stage EDP is described, and a mathematical planning model is constructed. Then, for two kinds of uncertainties (future capability requirements and the amount of investment in each stage), a corresponding DRL framework is designed to define the environment, state, action, and reward function for multi-stage EDP. After that, the dueling deep Q-network (Dueling DQN) algorithm is used to solve the multi-stage EDP to generate an approximately optimal multi-stage equipment development scheme. Finally, a case of ten kinds of equipment in 100 possible environments, which are randomly generated, is used to test the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models. The results show that the algorithm can respond instantaneously in any state of the multi-stage EDP environment and unlike traditional algorithms, the algorithm does not need to re-optimize the problem for any change in the environment. In addition, the algorithm can flexibly adjust at subsequent planning stages in the event of a change to the equipment capability requirements to adapt to the new requirements.

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Mission reliability modeling and evaluation for reconfigurable unmanned weapon system-of-systems based on effective operation loop
Zhiwei CHEN, Ziming ZHOU, Luogeng ZHANG, Chaowei CUI, Jilong ZHONG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (3): 588-597.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000082
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The concept of unmanned weapon system-of-systems (UWSoS) involves a collection of various unmanned systems to achieve or accomplish a specific goal or mission. The mission reliability of UWSoS is represented by its ability to finish a required mission above the baselines of a given mission. However, issues with heterogeneity, cooperation between systems, and the emergence of UWSoS cannot be effectively solved by traditional system reliability methods. This study proposes an effective operation-loop-based mission reliability evaluation method for UWSoS by analyzing dynamic reconfiguration. First, we present a new connotation of an effective operation loop by considering the allocation of operational entities and physical resource constraints. Then, we propose an effective operation-loop-based mission reliability model for a heterogeneous UWSoS according to the mission baseline. Moreover, a mission reliability evaluation algorithm is proposed under random external shocks and topology reconfiguration, revealing the evolution law of the effective operation loop and mission reliability. Finally, a typical 60-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-swarm is taken as an example to demonstrate the proposed models and methods. The mission reliability is achieved by considering external shocks, which can serve as a reference for evaluating and improving the effectiveness of UWSoS.

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Adaptive resource allocation for workflow containerization on Kubernetes
Chenggang SHAN, Chuge WU, Yuanqing XIA, Zehua GUO, Danyang LIU, Jinhui ZHANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (3): 723-743.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000073
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In a cloud-native era, the Kubernetes-based workflow engine enables workflow containerized execution through the inherent abilities of Kubernetes. However, when encountering continuous workflow requests and unexpected resource request spikes, the engine is limited to the current workflow load information for resource allocation, which lacks the agility and predictability of resource allocation, resulting in over and under-provisioning resources. This mechanism seriously hinders workflow execution efficiency and leads to high resource waste. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose an adaptive resource allocation scheme named adaptive resource allocation scheme (ARAS) for the Kubernetes-based workflow engines. Considering potential future workflow task requests within the current task pod’s lifecycle, the ARAS uses a resource scaling strategy to allocate resources in response to high-concurrency workflow scenarios. The ARAS offers resource discovery, resource evaluation, and allocation functionalities and serves as a key component for our tailored workflow engine (KubeAdaptor). By integrating the ARAS into KubeAdaptor for workflow containerized execution, we demonstrate the practical abilities of KubeAdaptor and the advantages of our ARAS. Compared with the baseline algorithm, experimental evaluation under three distinct workflow arrival patterns shows that ARAS gains time-saving of 9.8% to 40.92% in the average total duration of all workflows, time-saving of 26.4% to 79.86% in the average duration of individual workflow, and an increase of 1% to 16% in centrol processing unit (CPU) and memory resource usage rate.

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An evaluation method of contribution rate based on fuzzy Bayesian networks for equipment system-of-systems architecture
Renjie XU, Xin LIU, Donghao CUI, Jian XIE, Lin GONG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (3): 574-587.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000081
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The contribution rate of equipment system-of-systems architecture (ESoSA) is an important index to evaluate the equipment update, development, and architecture optimization. Since the traditional ESoSA contribution rate evaluation method does not make full use of the fuzzy information and uncertain information in the equipment system-of-systems (ESoS), and the Bayesian network is an effective tool to solve the uncertain information, a new ESoSA contribution rate evaluation method based on the fuzzy Bayesian network (FBN) is proposed. Firstly, based on the operation loop theory, an ESoSA is constructed considering three aspects: reconnaissance equipment, decision equipment, and strike equipment. Next, the fuzzy set theory is introduced to construct the FBN of ESoSA to deal with fuzzy information and uncertain information. Furthermore, the fuzzy importance index of the root node of the FBN is used to calculate the contribution rate of the ESoSA, and the ESoSA contribution rate evaluation model based on the root node fuzzy importance is established. Finally, the feasibility and rationality of this method are validated via an empirical case study of aviation ESoSA. Compared with traditional methods, the evaluation method based on FBN takes various failure states of equipment into consideration, is free of acquiring accurate probability of traditional equipment failure, and models the uncertainty of the relationship between equipment. The proposed method not only supplements and improves the ESoSA contribution rate assessment method, but also broadens the application scope of the Bayesian network.

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Two-dimensional directional modulation with dual-mode vortex beam for security transmission
Changju ZHU, Maozhong SONG, Xiaoyu DANG, Qiuming ZHU
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1108-1118.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000136
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A two-dimensional directional modulation (DM) technology with dual-mode orbital angular momentum (OAM) beam is proposed for physical-layer security of the relay unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) tracking transmission. The elevation and azimuth of the vortex beam are modulated into the constellation, which can form the digital waveform with the encoding modulation. Since the signal is direction-dependent, the modulated waveform is purposely distorted in other directions to offer a security technology. Two concentric uniform circular arrays (UCAs) with different radii are excited to generate dual vortex beams with orthogonality for the composite signal, which can increase the demodulation difficulty. Due to the phase propagation characteristics of vortex beam, the constellation at the desired azimuth angle will change continuously within a wavelength. A desired single antenna receiver can use the propagation phase compensation and an opposite helical phase factor for the signal demodulation in the desired direction. Simulations show that the proposed OAM-DM scheme offers a security approach with direction sensitivity transmission.

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Classification of birds and drones by exploiting periodical motions in Doppler spectrum series
Jia DUAN, Lei ZHANG, Yifeng WU, Yue ZHANG, Zeya ZHAO, Xinrong GUO
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (1): 19-27.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000002
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With the rapidly growing abuse of drones, monitoring and classification of birds and drones have become a crucial safety issue. With similar low radar cross sections (RCSs), velocities, and heights, drones are usually difficult to be distinguished from birds in radar measurements. In this paper, we propose to exploit different periodical motions of birds and drones from high-resolution Doppler spectrum sequences (DSSs) for classification. This paper presents an elaborate feature vector representing the periodic fluctuations of RCS and micro kinematics. Fed by the Doppler spectrum and feature sequence, the long to short-time memory (LSTM) is used to solve the time series classification. Different classification schemes to exploit the Doppler spectrum series are validated and compared by extensive real-data experiments, which confirms the effectiveness and superiorities of the proposed algorithm.

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Micro-Doppler feature extraction of micro-rotor UAV under the background of low SNR
Weikun HE, Jingbo SUN, Xinyun ZHANG, Zhenming LIU
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1127-1139.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000138
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Micro-Doppler feature extraction of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is important for their identification and classification. Noise and the motion state of the UAV are the main factors that may affect feature extraction and estimation precision of the micro-motion parameters. The spectrum of UAV echoes is reconstructed to strengthen the micro-motion feature and reduce the influence of the noise on the condition of low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Then considering the rotor rate variance of UAV in the complex motion state, the cepstrum method is improved to extract the rotation rate of the UAV, and the blade length can be intensively estimated. The experiment results for the simulation data and measured data show that the reconstruction of the spectrum for the UAV echoes is helpful and the relative mean square root error of the rotating speed and blade length estimated by the proposed method can be improved. However, the computation complexity is higher and the heavier computation burden is required.

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A multiple heterogeneous UAVs reconnaissance mission planning and re-planning algorithm
Lei HU, Boqi XI, Guoxing YI, Hui ZHAO, Jiapeng ZHONG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1190-1207.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000142
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Reconnaissance mission planning of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) under an adversarial environment is a discrete combinatorial optimization problem which is proved to be a non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-complete problem. The purpose of this study is to research intelligent multi-UAVs reconnaissance mission planning and online re-planning algorithm under various constraints in mission areas. For numerous targets scattered in the wide area, a reconnaissance mission planning and re-planning system is established, which includes five modules, including intelligence analysis, sub-mission area division, mission sequence planning, path smoothing, and online re-planning. The intelligence analysis module depicts the attribute of targets and the heterogeneous characteristic of UAVs and computes the number of sub-mission areas on consideration of voyage distance constraints. In the sub-mission area division module, an improved K-means clustering algorithm is designed to divide the reconnaissance mission area into several sub-mission areas, and each sub-mission is detected by the UAV loaded with various detective sensors. To control reconnaissance cost, the sampling and iteration algorithms are proposed in the mission sequence planning module, which are utilized to solve the optimal or approximately optimal reconnaissance sequence. In the path smoothing module, the Dubins curve is applied to smooth the flight path, which assure the availability of the planned path. Furthermore, an online re-planning algorithm is designed for the uncertain factor that the UAV is damaged. Finally, reconnaissance planning and re-planning experiment results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper are effective and the algorithms designed for sequence planning have a great advantage in solving efficiency and optimality.

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A review of addressing class noise problems of remote sensing classification
Wei FENG, Yijun LONG, Shuo WANG, Yinghui QUAN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (1): 36-46.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000034
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The development of image classification is one of the most important research topics in remote sensing. The prediction accuracy depends not only on the appropriate choice of the machine learning method but also on the quality of the training datasets. However, real-world data is not perfect and often suffers from noise. This paper gives an overview of noise filtering methods. Firstly, the types of noise and the consequences of class noise on machine learning are presented. Secondly, class noise handling methods at both the data level and the algorithm level are introduced. Then ensemble-based class noise handling methods including class noise removal, correction, and noise robust ensemble learners are presented. Finally, a summary of existing data-cleaning techniques is given.

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Deep reinforcement learning for UAV swarm rendezvous behavior
Yaozhong ZHANG, Yike LI, Zhuoran WU, Jialin XU
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 360-373.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000056
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The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm technology is one of the research hotspots in recent years. With the continuous improvement of autonomous intelligence of UAV, the swarm technology of UAV will become one of the main trends of UAV development in the future. This paper studies the behavior decision-making process of UAV swarm rendezvous task based on the double deep Q network (DDQN) algorithm. We design a guided reward function to effectively solve the problem of algorithm convergence caused by the sparse return problem in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) for the long period task. We also propose the concept of temporary storage area, optimizing the memory playback unit of the traditional DDQN algorithm, improving the convergence speed of the algorithm, and speeding up the training process of the algorithm. Different from traditional task environment, this paper establishes a continuous state-space task environment model to improve the authentication process of UAV task environment. Based on the DDQN algorithm, the collaborative tasks of UAV swarm in different task scenarios are trained. The experimental results validate that the DDQN algorithm is efficient in terms of training UAV swarm to complete the given collaborative tasks while meeting the requirements of UAV swarm for centralization and autonomy, and improving the intelligence of UAV swarm collaborative task execution. The simulation results show that after training, the proposed UAV swarm can carry out the rendezvous task well, and the success rate of the mission reaches 90%.

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Sparsity-based efficient simulation of cluster targets electromagnetic scattering
Yuguang TIAN, Yixin LIU, Xuan CHEN, Penghui CHEN, Jun WANG, Junwen CHEN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 299-306.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000055
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An efficient and real-time simulation method is proposed for the dynamic electromagnetic characteristics of cluster targets to meet the requirements of engineering practical applications. First, the coordinate transformation method is used to establish a geometric model of the observation scene, which is described by the azimuth angles and elevation angles of the radar in the target reference frame and the attitude angles of the target in the radar reference frame. Then, an approach for dynamic electromagnetic scattering simulation is proposed. Finally, a fast-computing method based on sparsity in the time domain, space domain, and frequency domain is proposed. The method analyzes the sparsity-based dynamic scattering characteristic of the typical cluster targets. The error between the sparsity-based method and the benchmark is small, proving the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Adaptive dynamic reconfiguration mechanism of unmanned swarm topology based on an evolutionary game
Minggang YU, Yanjie NIU, Xueda LIU, Dongge ZHANG, Peng ZHENG, Ming HE, Ling LUO
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (3): 598-614.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000041
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Autonomous cooperation of unmanned swarms is the research focus on “new combat forces” and “disruptive technologies” in military fields. The mechanism design is the fundamental way to realize autonomous cooperation. Facing the realistic requirements of a swarm network dynamic adjustment under the background of high dynamics and strong confrontation and aiming at the optimization of the coordination level, an adaptive dynamic reconfiguration mechanism of unmanned swarm topology based on an evolutionary game is designed. This paper analyzes military requirements and proposes the basic framework of autonomous cooperation of unmanned swarms, including the emergence of swarm intelligence, information network construction and collaborative mechanism design. Then, based on the framework, the adaptive dynamic reconfiguration mechanism is discussed in detail from two aspects: topology dynamics and strategy dynamics. Next, the unmanned swarms’ community network is designed, and the network characteristics are analyzed. Moreover, the mechanism characteristics are analyzed by numerical simulation, focusing on the impact of key parameters, such as cost, benefit coefficient and adjustment rate on the level of swarm cooperation. Finally, the conclusion is made, which is expected to provide a theoretical reference and decision support for cooperative mode design and combat effectiveness generation of unmanned swarm operations.

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Component reallocation and system replacement maintenance based on availability and cost in series systems
Yuqiang FU, Xiaoyang MA
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1342-1353.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000153
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Component reallocation (CR) is receiving increasing attention in many engineering systems with functionally interchangeable and unbalanced degradation components. This paper studies a CR and system replacement maintenance policy of series repairable systems, which undergoes minimal repairs for each emergency failure of components, and considers constant downtime and cost of minimal repair, CR and system replacement. Two binary mixed integer nonlinear programming models are respectively established to determine the assignment of CR, and the uptime right before CR and system replacement with the objective of minimizing the system average maintenance cost and maximizing the system availability. Further, we derive the optimal uptime right before system replacement with maximization of the system availability, and then give the relationship between the system availability and the component failure rate. Finally, numerical examples show that the CR and system replacement maintenance policy can effectively reduce the system average maintenance cost and improve the system availability, and further give the sensitivity analysis and insights of the CR and system replacement maintenance policy.

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Sliding mode fault tolerant consensus control for multi-agent systems based on super-twisting observer
Pu YANG, Xukai HU, Zixin WANG, Zhiqing ZHANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1309-1319.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000150
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The fault-tolerant consensus problem for leader-following nonlinear multi-agent systems with actuator faults is mainly investigated. A new super-twisting sliding mode observer is constructed to estimate the velocity and undetectable fault information simultaneously. The time-varying gain is introduced to solve the initial error problem and peak value problem, which makes the observation more accurate and faster. Then, based on the estimated results, an improved sliding mode fault-tolerant consensus control algorithm is designed to compensate the actuator faults. The protocol can guarantee the finite-time consensus control of multi-agent systems and suppress chattering. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the observer and control algorithm are proved by some simulation examples of the multi-aircraft system.

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Dynamic affine formation control of networked under-actuated quad-rotor UAVs with three-dimensional patterns
Yang XU, Weiming ZHENG, Delin LUO, Haibin DUAN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1269-1285.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000147
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This paper focuses on the solution to the dynamic affine formation control problem for multiple networked under-actuated quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to achieve a configuration that preserves collinearity and ratios of distances for a target configuration. In particular, it is investigated that the quad-rotor UAVs are steered to track a reference linear velocity while maintaining a desired three-dimensional target formation. Firstly, by integrating the properties of the affine transformation and the stress matrix, the design of the target formation is convenient and applicable for various three-dimensional geometric patterns. Secondly, a distributed control method is proposed under a hierarchical framework. By introducing an intermediary control input for each quad-rotor UAV in the position loop, the necessary thrust input and the desired attitude are extracted. In the attitude loop, the desired attitude represented by the unit quaternion is tracked by the designed torque input. Both conditions of linear velocity unavailability and mutual collision avoidance are also tackled. In terms of Lyapunov theory, it is prooved that the overall closed-loop error system is asymptotically stable. Finally, two illustrative examples are simulated to validate the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

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Threshold-type memristor-based crossbar array design and its application in handwritten digit recognition
Qingjian LI, Yan LIANG, Zhenzhou LU, Guangyi WANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 324-334.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000018
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Neuromorphic computing simulates the operation of biological brain function for information processing and can potentially solve the bottleneck of the Von Neumann architecture. Inspired by the real characteristics of physical memristive devices, we propose a threshold-type nonlinear voltage-controlled memristor mathematical model which is used to design a novel memristor-based crossbar array. The presented crossbar array can simulate the synaptic weight in real number field rather than only positive number field. Theoretical analysis and simulation results of a 2×2 image inversion operation validate the feasibility of the proposed crossbar array and the necessary training and inference functions. Finally, the presented crossbar array is used to construct the neural network and then applied in the handwritten digit recognition. The Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) database is adopted to train this neural network and it achieves a satisfactory accuracy.

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Search for d-MPs without duplicates in two-terminal multistate networks based on MPs
Bei XU, Yining FANG, Guanghan BAI, Yun’an ZHANG, Junyong TAO
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1332-1341.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000152
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The reliability evaluation of a multistate network is primarily based on d-minimal paths/cuts (d-MPs/d-MCs). However, being a nondeterminism polynomial hard (NP-hard) problem, searching for all d-MPs is a rather challenging task. In existing implicit enumeration algorithms based on minimal paths (MPs), duplicate d-MP candidates may be generated. An extra step is needed to locate and remove these duplicate d-MP candidates, which costs significant computational effort. This paper proposes an efficient method to prevent the generation of duplicate d-MP candidates for implicit enumeration algorithms for d-MPs. First, the mechanism of generating duplicate d-MP candidates in the implicit enumeration algorithms is discussed. Second, a direct and efficient avoiding-duplicates method is proposed. Third, an improved algorithm is developed, followed by complexity analysis and illustrative examples. Based on the computational experiments comparing with two existing algorithms, it is found that the proposed method can significantly improve the efficiency of generating d-MPs for a particular demand level d.

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Network-based structure optimization method of the anti-aircraft system
Qingsong ZHAO, Junyi DING, Jichao LI, Huachao LI, Boyuan XIA
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 374-395.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000019
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The anti-aircraft system plays an irreplaceable role in modern combat. An anti-aircraft system consists of various types of functional entities interacting to destroy the hostile aircraft moving in high speed. The connecting structure of combat entities in it is of great importance for supporting the normal process of the system. In this paper, we explore the optimizing strategy of the structure of the anti-aircraft network by establishing extra communication channels between the combat entities. Firstly, the thought of combat network model (CNM) is borrowed to model the anti-aircraft system as a heterogeneous network. Secondly, the optimization objectives are determined as the survivability and the accuracy of the system. To specify these objectives, the information chain and accuracy chain are constructed based on CNM. The causal strength (CAST) logic and influence network (IN) are introduced to illustrate the establishment of the accuracy chain. Thirdly, the optimization constraints are discussed and set in three aspects: time, connection feasibility and budget. The time constraint network (TCN) is introduced to construct the timing chain and help to detect the timing consistency. Then, the process of the multi-objective optimization of the structure of the anti-aircraft system is designed. Finally, a simulation is conducted to prove the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. Non-dominated sorting based genetic algorithm-II (NSGA2) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem and two other algorithms including non-dominated sorting based genetic algorithm-III (NSGA3) and strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm-II (SPEA2) are employed as comparisons. The deciders and system builders can make the anti-aircraft system improved in the survivability and accuracy in the combat reality.

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Multi-fidelity Bayesian algorithm for antenna optimization
Jianxing LI, An YANG, Chunming TIAN, Le YE, Badong CHEN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1119-1126.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000137
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In this work, the multi-fidelity (MF) simulation driven Bayesian optimization (BO) and its advanced form are proposed to optimize antennas. Firstly, the multiple objective targets and the constraints are fused into one comprehensive objective function, which facilitates an end-to-end way for optimization. Then, to increase the efficiency of surrogate construction, we propose the MF simulation-based BO (MFBO), of which the surrogate model using MF simulation is introduced based on the theory of multi-output Gaussian process. To further use the low-fidelity (LF) simulation data, the modified MFBO (M-MFBO) is subsequently proposed. By picking out the most potential points from the LF simulation data and re-simulating them in a high-fidelity (HF) way, the M-MFBO has a possibility to obtain a better result with negligible overhead compared to the MFBO. Finally, two antennas are used to testify the proposed algorithms. It shows that the HF simulation-based BO (HFBO) outperforms the traditional algorithms, the MFBO performs more effectively than the HFBO, and sometimes a superior optimization result can be achieved by reusing the LF simulation data.

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Combat situation suppression of multiple UAVs based on spatiotemporal cooperative path planning
Lei HU, Guoxing YI, Yi NAN, Hao WANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (5): 1191-1210.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000119
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Aiming at the suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) task under the complex and complicated combat scenario, the spatiotemporal cooperative path planning methods are studied in this paper. The major research contents include optimal path points generation, path smoothing and cooperative rendezvous. In the path points generation part, the path points availability testing algorithm and the path segments availability testing algorithm are designed, on this foundation, the swarm intelligence-based path point generation algorithm is utilized to generate the optimal path. In the path smoothing part, taking terminal attack angle constraint and maneuverability constraint into consideration, the Dubins curve is introduced to smooth the path segments. In cooperative rendezvous part, we take estimated time of arrival requirement constraint and flight speed range constraint into consideration, the speed control strategy and flight path control strategy are introduced, further, the decoupling scheme of the circling maneuver and detouring maneuver is designed, in this case, the maneuver ways, maneuver point, maneuver times, maneuver path and flight speed are determined. Finally, the simulation experiments are conducted and the acquired results reveal that the time-space cooperation of multiple unmanned aeriel vehicles (UAVs) is effectively realized, in this way, the combat situation suppression against the enemy can be realized in SEAD scenarios.

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Reinforcement learning-based scheduling of multi-battery energy storage system
Guangran CHENG, Lu DONG, Xin YUAN, Changyin SUN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (1): 117-128.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000036
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In this paper, a reinforcement learning-based multi-battery energy storage system (MBESS) scheduling policy is proposed to minimize the consumers ’ electricity cost. The MBESS scheduling problem is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP) with unknown transition probability. However, the optimal value function is time-dependent and difficult to obtain because of the periodicity of the electricity price and residential load. Therefore, a series of time-independent action-value functions are proposed to describe every period of a day. To approximate every action-value function, a corresponding critic network is established, which is cascaded with other critic networks according to the time sequence. Then, the continuous management strategy is obtained from the related action network. Moreover, a two-stage learning protocol including offline and online learning stages is provided for detailed implementation in real-time battery management. Numerical experimental examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed algorithm.

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Robust missile autopilot design based on dynamic surface control
Jianping ZHOU, Wei LI, Qunli XIA, Huan JIANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (1): 160-171.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000154
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Since the dynamical system and control system of the missile are typically nonlinear, an effective acceleration tracking autopilot is designed using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in order to make the missile control system more robust despite the uncertainty of the dynamical parameters and the presence of disturbances. Firstly, the nonlinear mathematical model of the tail-controlled missile is decomposed into slow acceleration dynamics and fast pitch rate dynamics based on the naturally existing time scale separation. Secondly, the controller based on DSC is designed after obtaining the linear dynamics characteristics of the slow and fast subsystems. An extended state observer is used to detect the uncertainty of the system state variables and aerodynamic parameters to achieve the compensation of the control law. The closed-loop stability of the controller is derived and rigorously analyzed. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the design is verified by Monte Carlo simulation considering different initial conditions and parameter uptake. Simulation results illustrate that the missile autopilot based DSC controller achieves better performance and robustness than the other two well-known autopilots. The method proposed in this paper is applied to the design of a missile autopilot, and the results show that the acceleration tracking autopilot based on the DSC controller can ensure accurate tracking of the required commands and has better performance.

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Mainlobe jamming suppression via improved BSS method for rotated array radar
Hailong ZHANG, Gong ZHANG, Biao XUE, Jiawen YUAN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1151-1158.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000129
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This study deals with the problem of mainlobe jamming suppression for rotated array radar. The interference becomes spatially nonstationary while the radar array rotates, which causes the mismatch between the weight and the snapshots and thus the loss of target signal to noise ratio (SNR) of pulse compression. In this paper, we explore the spatial divergence of interference sources and consider the rotated array radar anti-mainlobe jamming problem as a generalized rotated array mixed signal (RAMS) model firstly. Then the corresponding algorithm improved blind source separation (BSS) using the frequency domain of robust principal component analysis (FD-RPCA-BSS) is proposed based on the established rotating model. It can eliminate the influence of the rotating parts and address the problem of loss of SNR . Finally, the measured peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of each separated channel is performed to identify the target echo channel among the separated channels. Simulation results show that the proposed method is practically feasible and can suppress the mainlobe jamming with lower loss of SNR.

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Robust least squares projection twin SVM and its sparse solution
Shuisheng ZHOU, Wenmeng ZHANG, Li CHEN, Mingliang XU
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (4): 827-838.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000103
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Least squares projection twin support vector machine (LSPTSVM) has faster computing speed than classical least squares support vector machine (LSSVM). However, LSPTSVM is sensitive to outliers and its solution lacks sparsity. Therefore, it is difficult for LSPTSVM to process large-scale datasets with outliers. In this paper, we propose a robust LSPTSVM model (called R-LSPTSVM) by applying truncated least squares loss function. The robustness of R-LSPTSVM is proved from a weighted perspective. Furthermore, we obtain the sparse solution of R-LSPTSVM by using the pivoting Cholesky factorization method in primal space. Finally, the sparse R-LSPTSVM algorithm (SR-LSPTSVM) is proposed. Experimental results show that SR-LSPTSVM is insensitive to outliers and can deal with large-scale datasets fastly.

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Faster-than-Nyquist signaling based on filter bank multicarrier modulation with joint optimization
Hui CHE, Dingxiang PENG, Fachang GUO, Yong BAI
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1208-1223.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000143
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Multi-carrier faster-than-Nyquist (MFTN) can improve the spectrum efficiency (SE). In this paper, we first analyze the benefit of time frequency packing MFTN (TFP-MFTN). Then, we propose an efficient digital implementation for TFP-MFTN based on filter bank multicarrier modulation. The time frequency packing ratio pair in our proposed implementation scheme is optimized with the SE criterion. Next, the joint optimization for the coded modulation MFTN based on extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart is performed. The Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out to verify performance gain of the joint inner and outer code optimization. Simulation results demonstrate that the TFP-MFTN has a 0.8 dB and 0.9 dB gain comparing to time packing MFTN (TP-MFTN) and higher order Nyquist at same SE, respectively; the TFP-MFTN with optimized low density parity check (LDPC) code has a 2.9 dB gain comparing to that with digital video broadcasting (DVB) LDPC. Compared with previous work on TFP-MFTN (SE=1.55 bit/s/Hz), the SE of our work is improved by 29% and our work has a 4.1 dB gain at BER=1×10?5.

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Design of multilayer cellular neural network based on memristor crossbar and its application to edge detection
Yongbin YU, Haowen TANG, Xiao FENG, Xiangxiang WANG, Hang HUANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (3): 641-649.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000127
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Memristor with memory properties can be applied to connection points (synapses) between cells in a cellular neural network (CNN). This paper highlights memristor crossbar-based multilayer CNN (MCM-CNN) and its application to edge detection. An MCM-CNN is designed by adopting a memristor crossbar composed of a pair of memristors. MCM-CNN based on the memristor crossbar with changeable weight is suitable for edge detection of a binary image and a color image considering its characteristics of programmablization and compactation. Figure of merit (FOM) is introduced to evaluate the proposed structure and several traditional edge detection operators for edge detection results. Experiment results show that the FOM of MCM-CNN is three times more than that of the traditional edge detection operators.

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Design and analysis of active disturbance rejection control for time-delay systems using frequency-sweeping
Yongshuai WANG, Zengqiang CHEN, Mingwei SUN, Qinglin SUN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 479-491.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000046
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For the typical first-order systems with time-delay, this paper explors the control capability of linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC). Firstly, the critical time-delay of LADRC is analyzed using the frequency-sweeping method and the Routh criterion, and the stable time-delay interval starting from zero is accurately obtained, which reveals the limitations of general LADRC on large time-delay. Then in view of the large time-delay, an LADRC controller is developed and verified to be effective, along with the robustness analysis. Finally, numerical simulations show the accuracy of critical time-delay, and demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller compared with other modified LADRCs.

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Evaluation of global navigation satellite system spoofing efficacy
Yue WANG, Fuping SUN, Jinming HAO, Lundong ZHANG, Xian WANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2022, 33 (6): 1238-1257.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000145
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The spoofing capability of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) represents an important confrontational capability for navigation security, and the success of planned missions may depend on the effective evaluation of spoofing capability. However, current evaluation systems face challenges arising from the irrationality of previous weighting methods, inapplicability of the conventional multi-attribute decision-making method and uncertainty existing in evaluation. To solve these difficulties, considering the validity of the obtained results, an evaluation method based on the game aggregated weight model and a joint approach involving the grey relational analysis and technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (GRA-TOPSIS) are firstly proposed to determine the optimal scheme. Static and dynamic evaluation results under different schemes are then obtained via a fuzzy comprehensive assessment and an improved dynamic game method, to prioritize the deceptive efficacy of the equipment accurately and make pointed improvement for its core performance. The use of judging indicators, including Spearman rank correlation coefficient and so on, combined with obtained evaluation results, demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method and the optimal scheme by the horizontal comparison of different methods and vertical comparison of evaluation results. Finally, the results of field measurements and simulation tests show that the proposed method can better overcome the difficulties of existing methods and realize the effective evaluation.

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Autonomous landing scene recognition based on transfer learning for drones
Hao DU, Wei WANG, Xuerao WANG, Yuanda WANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (1): 28-35.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000031
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In this paper, we study autonomous landing scene recognition with knowledge transfer for drones. Considering the difficulties in aerial remote sensing, especially that some scenes are extremely similar, or the same scene has different representations in different altitudes, we employ a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based on knowledge transfer and fine-tuning to solve the problem. Then, LandingScenes-7 dataset is established and divided into seven classes. Moreover, there is still a novelty detection problem in the classifier, and we address this by excluding other landing scenes using the approach of thresholding in the prediction stage. We employ the transfer learning method based on ResNeXt-50 backbone with the adaptive momentum (ADAM) optimization algorithm. We also compare ResNet-50 backbone and the momentum stochastic gradient descent (SGD) optimizer. Experiment results show that ResNeXt-50 based on the ADAM optimization algorithm has better performance. With a pre-trained model and fine-tuning, it can achieve 97.8450% top-1 accuracy on the LandingScenes-7 dataset, paving the way for drones to autonomously learn landing scenes.

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Optimization method of linear barrier coverage deployment for multistatic radar
Haipeng LI, Dazheng FENG, Xiaohui WANG
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (1): 68-80.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000124
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To address the problem of building linear barrier coverage with the location restriction, an optimization method for deploying multistatic radars is proposed, where the location restriction splits the deployment line into two segments. By proving the characteristics of deployment patterns, an optimal deployment sequence consisting of multiple deployment patterns is proposed and exploited to cover each segment. The types and numbers of deployment patterns are determined by an algorithm that combines the integer linear programming (ILP) and exhaustive method (EM). In addition, to reduce the computation amount, a formula is introduced to calculate the upper threshold of receivers’ number in a deployment pattern. Furthermore, since the objective function is non-convex and non-analytic, the overall model is divided into two layers concerning two suboptimization problems. Subsequently, another algorithm that integrates the segments and layers is proposed to determine the deployment parameters, such as the minimum cost, parameters of the optimal deployment sequence, and the location of the split point. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively determine the optimal deployment parameters under the location restriction.

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Minimum eigenvalue based adaptive fault compensation for hypersonic vehicles
Yajie MA, Bin JIANG, Hao REN
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (2): 492-500.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000039
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The attitude tracking control problem is addressed for hypersonic vehicles under actuator faults that may cause an uncertain time-varying control gain matrix. An adaptive compensation scheme is developed to ensure system stability and asymptotic tracking properties, including a kinematic control signal and a dynamic control signal. To deal with the uncertainties of the control gain matrix, a new positive definite one is constructed. The minimum eigenvalue of such a new control gain matrix is estimated. Simulation results of application to an X-33 vehicle model verify the effectiveness of the proposed minimum eigenvalue based adaptive fault compensation scheme.

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Dimension decomposition algorithm for multiple source localization using uniform circular array
Xiaolong SU, Panhe HU, Zhenhua WEI, Zhen LIU, Junpeng SHI, Xiang LI
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics    2023, 34 (3): 650-660.   DOI: 10.23919/JSEE.2023.000016
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A dimension decomposition (DIDE) method for multiple incoherent source localization using uniform circular array (UCA) is proposed. Due to the fact that the far-field signal can be considered as the state where the range parameter of the near-field signal is infinite, the algorithm for the near-field source localization is also suitable for estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of far-field signals. By decomposing the first and second exponent term of the steering vector, the three-dimensional (3-D) parameter is transformed into two-dimensional (2-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) parameter estimation. First, by partitioning the received data, we exploit propagator to acquire the noise subspace. Next, the objective function is established and partial derivative is applied to acquire the spatial spectrum of 2-D DOA. At last, the estimated 2-D DOA is utilized to calculate the phase of the decomposed vector, and the least squares (LS) is performed to acquire the range parameters. In comparison to the existing algorithms, the proposed DIDE algorithm requires neither the eigendecomposition of covariance matrix nor the search process of range spatial spectrum, which can achieve satisfactory localization and reduce computational complexity. Simulations are implemented to illustrate the advantages of the proposed DIDE method. Moreover, simulations demonstrate that the proposed DIDE method can also classify the mixed far-field and near-field signals.

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