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21 August 2012, Volume 23 Issue 4
Optimal antenna placement in distributed antenna systems
Zhongzhao Zhang, Zhun Ye, and Weilin Jiang
2012, 23(4):  467-472.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00059
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To minimize the outage probability of the cell (OPC) in downlink distributed antenna systems with selection transmission, a complex-encoding genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to find the optimal locations of the antenna elements (AEs). First, the outage probability at a fixed location in the cell is investigated. Next, an analytical expression of the OPC is derived, which is a function of the AE locations. Then the OPC is used as the objective function of the antenna placement optimization problem, and the complexencoding GA is used to find the optimal AE locations in the cell. Numerical results show that the optimal AE locations are symmetric about the cell center, and the outage probability contours are also given with the optimal antenna placement. The algorithm has a good convergence and can also be used to determine the number of AEs which should be installed in order to satisfy the certain OPC value. Lastly, verification of the OPC’s analytical expression is carried out by Monte Carlo simulations. The OPC with optimal AE locations is about 10% lower than the values with completely random located AEs.

Blind estimation of phase offset in OFDM subcarrier for coherent demodulation
Jian Chen, Long Yang, and Ming Li
2012, 23(4):  473-480.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00060
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An adaptive algorithm named low complexity phase offset estimation (LC-POE) is proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Depending on the requirement, the estimation procedure is divided into several scales to accelerate the adaptive convergence speed and ensure the estimation accuracy. The true phase offset is estimated through shrinking the detection range and raising the resolution scale step by step. Both the convergence performance and complexity are discussed in the paper. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The LC-POE algorithm is promising in the application of OFDM systems.

Direction finding of coexisted independent and coherent signals using electromagnetic vector sensor
Ming Diao and Chunlian An
2012, 23(4):  481-487.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00061
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The existing direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms based on the electromagnetic vector sensors array barely deal with the coexisting of independent and coherent signals. A two-dimensional direction finding method using an L-shape electromagnetic vector sensors array is proposed. According to this method, the DOAs of the independent signals and the coherent signals are estimated separately, so that the array aperture can be exploited sufficiently. Firstly, the DOAs of the independent signals are estimated by the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques, and the influence of the coherent signals can be eliminated by utilizing the property of the coherent signals. Then the data covariance matrix containing the information of the coherent signals only is obtained by exploiting the Toeplitz property of the independent signals, and an improved polarimetric angular smoothing technique is proposed to de-correlate the coherent signals. This new method is more practical in actual signal environment than common DOA estimation algorithms and can expand the array aperture. Simulation results are presented to show the estimating performance of the proposed method.

Practical constrained least-square algorithm for moving source location using TDOA and FDOA measurements
Huagang Yu, Gaoming Huang, Jun Gao, and Bo Yan
2012, 23(4):  488-494.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00062
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By utilizing the time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) measurements of signals received at a number of receivers, a constrained least-square (CLS) algorithm for estimating the position and velocity of a moving source is proposed. By utilizing the Lagrange multipliers technique, the known relation between the intermediate variables and the source location coordinates could be exploited to constrain the solution. And without requiring apriori knowledge of TDOA and FDOA measurement noises, the proposed algorithm can satisfy the demand of practical applications. Additionally, on basis of convolute and polynomial rooting operations, the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained efficiently and robustly allowing real-time implementation and global convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed estimator achieves remarkably better performance than the two-step weighted least square (WLS) approach especially for higher measurement noise level.

Universal FRFT-based algorithm for parameter estimation of chirp signals
Rong Chen and Yiming Wang
2012, 23(4):  495-501.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00063
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The realization of the parameter estimation of chirp signals using the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is based on the assumption that the sampling duration of practical observed signals would be equal to the time duration of chirp signals contained in the former. However, in many actual circumstances, this assumption seems unreasonable. On the basis of analyzing the practical signal form, this paper derives the estimation error of the existing parameter estimation method and then proposes a novel and universal parameter estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is developed which allows the estimation of the practical observed Gaussian windowed chirp signal. Simulation results show that the new algorithm works well.

New method of time-frequency representation for ISAR imaging of ship targets
Yong Wang
2012, 23(4):  502-511.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00064
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Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of ship targets is very important in the national defense. For the high maneuverability of ship targets, the Doppler frequency shift of the received signal is time-varying, which will degrade the ISAR image quality for the traditional range-Doppler (RD) algorithm. In this paper, the received signal in a range bin is characterized as the multi-component polynomial phase signal (PPS) after the motion compensation, and a new approach of time-frequency representation, generalized polynomial Wigner-Ville distribution (GPWVD), is proposed for the azimuth focusing. The GPWVD is based on the exponential matched-phase (EMP) principle. Compared with the conventional polynomial Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD), the EMP principle transfers the non-integer lag coefficients of the PWVD to the position of the exponential of the signal, and the interpolation can be avoided completely. For the GPWVD, the cross-terms between multi-component signals can be reduced by decomposing the GPWVD into the convolution of Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and the spectrum of phase adjust functions. The GPWVD is used in the ISAR imaging of ship targets, and the high quality instantaneous ISAR images can be obtained. Simulation results and measurement data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

Novel reference range selection method in InISAR imaging
Chenglan Liu, Feng He, Xunzhang Gao, Xiang Li, and Rongjun Shen
2012, 23(4):  512-521.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00065
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Aiming at the reference range selection for different antennas in interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar (InISAR) systems, this paper proposes a respective focusing (RF) method. The reference ranges for echoes of different antennas are selected respectively for RF, which is different from the traditional uniform focusing (UF) with the same reference range applied to all the antennas. First, a comparison between UF and RF for InISAR signal model considering the ranging error is given. Compared with RF, UF has an advantage in overcoming the ranging error differences between different antennas. Then the influence of ranging error upon the interferometric imaging with RF is investigated particularly, and it is found that the ranging error differences between different antennas are far smaller than the wavelength, which is advantageous to imaging. By comparing the capabilities of interferometric imaging between RF and UF, it is concluded that RF is a better choice in conquering problems such as image mismatching and phase ambiguity even with ranging errors. Simulations demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Novel polarization filter design for wideband radar
Runlan Tian and Xiaojian Tian
2012, 23(4):  522-528.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00066
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Usually the polarization of the interference and the target backscattering may vary constantly, so the optimal receiving polarization of the polarization filter should be recalculated, which makes the filter realization very difficult. Also the predict method of the necessary parameters is not explained in most papers, which makes the polarization filter realization impossible. A novel modified interference suppression (MIS) polarization filter is proposed, which resolves these problems by a new polarization designed strategy. The computation of this polarization filter is easy in most conditions, and the necessary parameters estimation method in real time is introduced, which makes polarization filter design possible.

Optimizing polyphase sequences for orthogonal netted radar systems
Wenwu Chen, Zhengyu Cai, Rushan Chen, and Zhao Zhao
2012, 23(4):  529-535.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00067
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Orthogonal netted radar systems (ONRS) can fundamentally improve the radar performance by using a group of specially designed orthogonal polyphase code signals which require a very low aperiodic autocorrelation peak sidelobe level, low aperiodic cross-correlation, and a good resilience to small Doppler shifts. However, the existing numerical solutions degrade severely in the presence of small Doppler shifts. A new set of polyphase sequences is presented with good correlation properties as well as resilience to Doppler shifts. These sequences are built by using numerical optimization based on correlation properties as well as the Doppler effects on matched filter outputs, which maintains the Doppler tolerance. The statistical simulated annealing algorithm and the greedy code search method are used to optimize the sequences. Correlation and Doppler results are compared with the best-known sequences and show to be superior.

Hybrid hierarchical trajectory planning for a fixed-wing UCAV performing air-to-surface multi-target attack
Yu Zhang, Jing Chen, and Lincheng Shen
2012, 23(4):  536-552.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00068
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This paper considers the problem of generating a flight trajectory for a single fixed-wing unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) performing an air-to-surface multi-target attack (A/SMTA) mission using satellite-guided bombs. First, this problem is formulated as a variant of the traveling salesman problem (TSP), called the dynamic-constrained TSP with neighborhoods (DCTSPN). Then, a hierarchical hybrid approach, which partitions the planning algorithm into a roadmap planning layer and an optimal control layer, is proposed to solve the DCTSPN. In the roadmap planning layer, a novel algorithm based on an updatable probabilistic roadmap (PRM) is presented, which operates by randomly sampling a finite set of vehicle states from continuous state space in order to reduce the complicated trajectory planning problem to planning on a finite directed graph. In the optimal control layer, a collision-free state-to-state trajectory planner based on the Gauss pseudospectral method is developed, which can generate both dynamically feasible and optimal flight trajectories. The entire process of solving a DCTSPN consists of two phases. First, in the offline preprocessing phase, the algorithm constructs a PRM, and then converts the original problem into a standard asymmetric TSP (ATSP). Second, in the online querying phase, the costs of directed edges in PRM are updated first, and a fast heuristic searching algorithm is then used to solve the ATSP. Numerical experiments indicate that the algorithm proposed in this paper can generate both feasible and near-optimal solutions quickly for online purposes.

Validation methodology for distribution-based degradation model
Yunxia Chen, Zhiguo Zeng, and Rui Kang
2012, 23(4):  553-559.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00069
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Distribution-based degradation models (or graphical approach in some literature) occur in a wide range of applications. However, few of existing methods have taken the validation of the built model into consideration. A validation methodology for distribution-based models is proposed in this paper. Since the model can be expressed as consisting of assumptions of model structures and embedded model parameters, the proposed methodology carries out the validation from these two aspects. By using appropriate statistical techniques, the rationality of degradation distributions, suitability of fitted models and validity of degradation models are validated respectively. A new statistical technique based on control limits is also proposed, which can be implemented in the validation of degradation models’ validity. The case study on degradation modeling of an actual accelerometer shows that the proposed methodology is an effective solution to the validation problem of distribution-based degradation models.

Differently implicational α-universal triple I restriction method of (1, 2, 2) type
Yiming Tang, Fuji Ren, and Yanxiang Chen
2012, 23(4):  560-573.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00070
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From the viewpoints of both fuzzy system and fuzzy reasoning, a new fuzzy reasoning method which contains the α-triple I restriction method as its particular case is proposed. The previous α-triple I restriction principles are improved, and then the optimal restriction solutions of this new method are achieved, especially for seven familiar implications. As its special case, the corresponding results of α-triple I restriction method are obtained and improved. Lastly, it is found by examples that this new method is more reasonable than the α-triple I restriction method.

Interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operators
Weize Wang, Xinwang Liu, and Yong Qin
2012, 23(4):  574-580.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00071
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The notion of the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS) is a generalization of that of the Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy set. The fundamental characteristic of IVIFS is that the values of its membership function and non-membership function are intervals rather than exact numbers. There are various averaging operators defined for IVIFSs. These operators are not monotone with respect to the total order of IVIFS, which is undesirable. This paper shows how such averaging operators can be represented by using additive generators of the product triangular norm, which simplifies and extends the existing constructions. Moreover, two new aggregation operators based on the ?ukasiewicz triangular norm are proposed, which are monotone with respect to the total order of IVIFS. Finally, an application of the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging operator is given to multiple criteria decision making.

Design and simulation of fault diagnosis based on NUIO/LMI for satellite attitude control systems
Yuehua Cheng, Qian Hou, and Bin Jiang
2012, 23(4):  581-587.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00072
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This paper presents a scheme of fault diagnosis for flexible satellites during orbit maneuver. The main contribution of the paper is related to the design of the nonlinear input observer which can avoid false alarm arising from the disturbance from orbit control force. The effects of orbit control force on the fault diagnosis system for satellite attitude control systems, including the disturbing torque caused by the misalignments and the model uncertainty caused by the fuel consumed, are discussed, where standard Luenberger observer cannot work well. Then the nonlinear unknown input observer is proposed to decouple faults from disturbance. Besides, a linear matrix inequality approach is adopted to reduce the effect of nonlinear part and model uncertainties on the observer. The numerical and semi-physical simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed observer for the fault diagnosis system of the satellite during orbit maneuver.

Constrained cooperative control design for distributed morphing wing systems
Zhen He and Yuping Lu
2012, 23(4):  588-595.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00073
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An efficient design method is proposed for the cooperative control problem of morphing wing systems with distributed structures and bounded control inputs. The multi-agent model of the distributed morphing wing system is established. The cooperative controllers with saturation constraints are presented. By introducing the concepts in consensus algorithms, the cooperative information links in the controllers are described by graphs, and the corresponding Laplacian matrix is defined. The design conditions of the cooperative controllers are proposed, in the form of linear matrix inequalities. For the case of undirected information links, the controller design conditions are simplified as algebraic inequalities, which highly reduce the computation cost. The designed controllers are implemented on a distributed morphing wing platform, and experiments are carried out. Simulation and experiment results show that the controllers can make all the actuating units in the morphing wing system cooperatively achieve the desired positions, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed theory.

Krein space approach to robust H∞ filtering for linear uncertain systems
Jin Feng, Fei Yu, Na Yang, Pengyu Zhang, and Wei Gao
2012, 23(4):  596-602.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00074
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A novel Krein space approach to robust H∞ filtering for linear uncertain systems is developed. The parameter uncertainty, entering into both states and measurement equations, satisfies an energy-type constraint. Then a Krein space approach is used to tackle the robust H∞ filtering problem. To this end, a new Krein space formal system is designed according to the original sum quadratic constraint (SQC) without introducing any nonzero factors into it and, consequently, the estimate recursion is obtained through the filter gain in Krein space. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Mitigating end effects of EMD using non-equidistance grey model
Zhi He, Yi Shen, Qiang Wang, Yan Wang, Naizhang Feng, and Liyong Ma
2012, 23(4):  603-611.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00075
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Aiming at mitigating end effects of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new approach motivated by the nonequidistance grey model (NGM) termed as NGM(1,1) is proposed. Other than trapezoid formulas, the cubic Hermite spline is put forward to improve the accuracy of derivative to the accumulated generating operation (AGO) series. Hopefully, it is worth stressing that the proposed NGM(1,1) model is particularly useful for predicting uncertainty data. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the proposed approach and other well-known algorithms are carried out through computer simulations on synthetic as well as natural signals. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed method can reduce end effects and improve the decomposition results of EMD.

New method for detection fusion of MAC based on DCM and NP rule
Zhenhua Xu, Jianguo Huang, and Qunfei Zhang
2012, 23(4):  612-617.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00076
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The problem of distributed detection fusion using multiple sensors for remote underwater target detection is studied. Considering that multiple access channel (MAC) schemes are able to offer high efficiency in bandwidth usage and consume less energy than the parallel access channel (PAC), the MAC scheme is introduced into the underwater target detection field. The model of underwater distributed detection fusion based on MAC schemes is established. A new method for detection fusion of MAC based on deflection coefficient maximization (DCM) and Neyman-Pearson (NP) rule is proposed. Under the power constraint of local sensors, this paper uses the DCM theory to derive the optimal weight coefficients and offsets. The closed-form expressions of detection probability and false alarm probability for fusion systems are obtained. The optimal detection performance of fusion systems is analyzed and deeply researched. Both the theory analysis and simulation experiments indicate that the proposed method could improve the detection performance and decrease the error probability effectively under power constraints of local sensors and low signal to noise ratio.

Adaptive nonuniformity correction for IRFPA sensors based on neural network framework
Junqi Bai, Hongyi Hou, Chunguang Zhao, Ning Sun, and Xianya Wang
2012, 23(4):  618-624.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2012.00077
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For infrared focal plane array sensors, imagery is degraded during signal acquisition, particularly nonuniformity. In this paper, an adaptive nonuniformity correction technique is proposed which simultaneously estimates detector-level and readoutchannel-level correction parameters using neural network approaches. Firstly, an improved neural network framework is designed to compute the desired output. Secondly, an adaptive learning rate rule is used in the gain and offset parameter estimation process. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can achieve a faster convergence speed and better stability, remove nonuniformity and track parameters drift effectively, and present a good adaptability to scene changes and nonuniformity conditions.