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25 October 2017, Volume 28 Issue 5
A 2-step GPS carrier tracking loop for urban vehicle applications
Hongyang Zhang, Luping Xu, Yue Jian, and Xiaochen Ma
2017, 28(5):  817-826.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.01
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Global positioning system (GPS) for vehicle applications in the urban area is challenged by low signal intensity. The carrier loop based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) can obtain a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) gain by increasing the observation time. However, this leads to a major problem that the acceleration cannot be ignored. The performance of the FFT-based loop will decline with the acceleration increasing. This paper discusses the effect of the dynamic on FFT first. Then a high performance carrier tracking loop for weak GPS L5 signals is proposed. It combines discrete chirp-Fourier transform (DCFT) and the phase fitting method to estimate Doppler frequency and Doppler rate simultaneously. First, a sequence of integration results is used to perform DCFT to estimate coarse Doppler frequency and Doppler rate. Second, the phase of the sequence is calculated and used to perform linear fitting. By the phase fitting method, the fine Doppler frequency and Doppler rate can be estimated. The computation cost is small because the integration results are used and the phase fitting method needs only coarse estimates of Doppler frequency and Doppler rate. Compared with FFT and DCFT, the precision of the phase fitting method is not limited by the resolution. Thus the proposed loop can get high precision and low carrier to noise ratio (C/N0) tracking threshold. Simulation results show this loop has a great improvement than conventional loops for urban weak-signal applications.

Aviation multi-station collaborative detecting based on time-frequency correlation of data-link
Bo Wang, Xiaolong Liang, Liang Wei, and Pingni Liu
2017, 28(5):  827-840.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.02
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As an important application research topic of the intelligent aviation multi-station, collaborative detecting must overcome the problem of scouting measurement with status of “fragmentation”, and the NP-hardness problem of matching association between target and measurement in the process of scouting to data-link, which has complicated technical architecture of network construction. In this paper, taking advantage of cooperation mechanism on signal level in the aviation multi-station sympathetic network, a method of obtaining target time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurement using multi-station collaborative detecting based on time-frequency association is proposed. The method can not only achieve matching between target and its measurement, but also obtain TDOA measurement by further evolutionary transaction through refreshing sequential pulse time of arrival (TOA) measurement matrix for matching and correlating. Simulation results show that the accuracy of TDOA measurement has significant superiority over TOA, and detection probability of false TDOA measurement introduced by noise and fake measurement can be reduced effectively.

Highly maneuvering target tracking using multi-parameter fusion Singer model
Shuyi Jia, Yun Zhang, and Guohong Wang
2017, 28(5):  841-850.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.03
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An algorithm of highly maneuvering target tracking is proposed to solve the problem of large tracking error caused by strong maneuver. In this algorithm, a new estimator, named as multi-parameter fusion Singer (MF-Singer) model is derived based on the Singer model and the fuzzy reasoning method by using radial acceleration and velocity of the target, and applied to the problem of maneuvering target tracking in strong maneuvering environment and operating environment. The tracking performance of the MF-Singer model is evaluated and compared with other manuevering tracking models. It is shown that the MF-Singer model outperforms these algorithms in several examples.

Adaptive tracking algorithm based on 3D variable turn model
Xiaohua Nie and Fuming Zhang
2017, 28(5):  851-860.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.04
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Satisfactory results cannot be obtained when threedimensional (3D) targets with complex maneuvering characteristics are tracked by the commonly used two-dimensional coordinated turn (2DCT) model. To address the problem of 3D target tracking with strong maneuverability, on the basis of the modified three-dimensional variable turn (3DVT) model, an adaptive tracking algorithm is proposed by combining with the cubature Kalman filter (CKF) in this paper. Through ideology of real-time identification, the parameters of the model are changed to adjust the state transition matrix and the state noise covariance matrix. Therefore, states of the target are matched in real-time to achieve the purpose of adaptive tracking. Finally, four simulations are analyzed in different settings by the Monte Carlo method. All results show that the proposed algorithm can update parameters of the model and identify motion characteristics in real-time when targets tracking also has a better tracking accuracy.

Genetic-optimization framework for SVC transmission based on partial cooperative communication
Kai Zhao and Yongcheng Sun
2017, 28(5):  861-870.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.05
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A genetic-optimization framework based on the partial cooperation communication protocol is proposed for scalable video coding (SVC) stream transmission under multi-relay amplify and forward cooperative networks. Unlike traditional cooperative transmission schemes, the transmission mode for each coded unit in this new protocol can be switched flexibly between direct transmission and cooperative transmission. Obviously, under this protocol, the bandwidth efficiency and transmission robustness can be balanced adaptively according to the priority level of coded units and wireless channel fading characteristics. Based on this, a well-known genetic optimization algorithm—differential evolution is exploited here to find the jointly optimal transmission modes, power allocation and unequal error protection (UEP) channel coding strategies to minimize the end to end reconstructed video distortion. Extensive simulation results show that, compared with classical optimal cooperative UEP transmission schemes, the proposed optimized transmission framework based on the partial cooperative protocol can bring significant peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) gains for the reconstructed video in a variety of channel bandwidth, power budget and test sequences.

DOA estimation method for wideband signals by sparse recovery in frequency domain
Jiaqi Zhen and Zhifang Wang
2017, 28(5):  871-878.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.06
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The traditional super-resolution direction finding methods based on sparse recovery need to divide the estimation space into several discrete angle grids, which will bring the final result some error. To this problem, a novel method for wideband signals by sparse recovery in the frequency domain is proposed. The optimization functions are found and solved by the received data at every frequency, on this basis, the sparse support set is obtained, then the direction of arrival (DOA) is acquired by integrating the information of all frequency bins, and the initial signal can also be recovered. This method avoids the error caused by sparse recovery methods based on grid division, and the degree of freedom is also expanded by array transformation, especially it has a preferable performance under the circumstances of a small number of snapshots and a low signal to noise ratio (SNR).

Radar high resolution range profile recognition via multi-SV method
Long Li, Zheng Liu, and Tao Li
2017, 28(5):  879-889.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.07
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For radar high resolution range profile (HRRP) recognition, three aspects are of great importance to improve the performance, i.e. discrimination for outlier, classification for inner and an accurate description for feature space. To tackle these issues, a novel target recognition method is designed, denoted by the multiple
support vectors (multi-SV) method. With the proposed method, a special framework is constructed by a treble correlate support vector model to segment the feature space to two regions with the distribution of density, and then the description and classification hyperplane for each region are achieved. Based on the support vector framework, this method needs less memory and computation complexity to fit practical radar HRRP recognition. Finally, the experiment based on the measured data verifies the excellent performance of this method.

LPI radar signal detection based on the combination of FFT and segmented autocorrelation plus PAHT
Chengzhi Yang, Zhiwei Xiong, Yang Guo, and Bolin Zhang
2017, 28(5):  890-899.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.08
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This paper proposes a desirable method to detect different kinds of low probability of intercept (LPI) radar signals, targeted at the main intra-pulse modulation method of LPI radar signals including the signals of linear frequency modulation, phase code, and frequency code. Firstly, it improves the coherent integration of LPI radar signals by adding the periodicity of the ambiguity function. Then, it develops a frequency domain detection method based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) and segmented autocorrelation function to detect signals without features of linear frequency modulation by virtue of the distribution characteristics of noise signals in the frequency domain. Finally, this paper gives a verification of the performance of the method for different signal-to-noise ratios by conducting simulation experiments, and compares the method with existing ones. Additionally, this method is characterized by the straightforward calculation and high real-time performance, which is conducive to better detecting all kinds of LPI radar signals.

Model architecture-oriented combat system effectiveness simulation based on MDE
Yonglin Lei, Ning Zhu, Jian Yao, Hessam Sarjoughian, and Weiping Wang
2017, 28(5):  900-922.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.09
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Combat system effectiveness simulation (CSES) is a special type of complex system simulation. Three non-functional requirements (NFRs), i.e. model composability, domain specific modeling, and model evolvability, are gaining higher priority from CSES users when evaluating different modeling methodologies for CSES. Traditional CSES modeling methodologies are either domain-neutral (lack of domain characteristics consideration and limited support for model composability) or domain-oriented (lack of openness and evolvability) and fall short of the three NFRs. Inspired by the concept of architecture in systems engineering and software engineering fields, we extend it into a concept of model architecture for complex simulation systems, and propose a model architecture-oriented modeling methodology in which the model architecture plays a central role in achieving the three NFRs. Various model-driven engineering (MDE) approaches and technologies, including simulation modeling platform (SMP), unified modeling language (UML), domain specific modeling (DSM), eclipse modeling framework (EMF), graphical modeling framework (GMF), and so forth, are applied where possible in representing the CSES model architecture and its components’ behaviors from physical and cognitive domain aspects. A prototype CSES system, called weapon effectiveness simulation system (WESS), and a non-trivial air-combat simulation example are presented to demonstrate the methodology.

System optimization-oriented spare parts dynamic configuration model for multi-echelon multi-indenture system
Minzhi Ruan, Hua Li, and Jian Fu
2017, 28(5):  923-933.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.10
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In order to optimize the spares configuration project at different stages during the life cycle, the factor of time is considered to relax the assumption of the spares steady demand in multi-echelon technique for recoverable item control (METRIC) theory. According to the method of systems analysis, the dynamic palm theorem is introduced to establish the prediction model of the spares demand rate, and its main influence factors are analyzed, based on which, the spares support effectiveness evaluation index system is studied, and the system optimization-oriented spares dynamic configuration method for multi-echelon multi-indenture system is proposed. Through the analysis of the optimization algorithm, the layered marginal algorithm is designed to improve the model calculation efficiency. In a given example, the multi-stage spares configuration project during its life cycle is gotten, the research result conforms to the actual status, and it can provide a new way for the spares dynamic optimization.

Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for geostationary orbit satellite mission planning
Jiting Li, Sheng Zhang, Xiaolu Liu, and Renjie He
2017, 28(5):  934-945.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.11
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In the past few decades, applications of geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites have attracted increasing attention, and with the development of optical technologies, GEO optical satellites have become popular worldwide. This paper proposes a general working pattern for a GEO optical satellite, as well as a target observation mission planning model. After analyzing the requirements of users and satellite control agencies, two objectives are simultaneously considered: maximization of total profit and minimization of satellite attitude maneuver angle. An NSGA-II based multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed, which contains some heuristic principles in the initialization phase and mutation operator, and is embedded with a traveling salesman problem (TSP) optimization. The validity and performance of the proposed method are verified by extensive numerical simulations that include several types of point target distributions.

Grey incidence clustering method based on multidimensional dynamic time warping distance
Jin Dai, Yi Yan, and Yuhong He
2017, 28(5):  946-954.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.12
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The traditional grey incidence degree is mainly based on the distance analysis methods, which is measured by the displacement difference between corresponding points between sequences. When some data of sequences are missing (inconsistency in the length of the sequences), the only way is to delete the longer sequences or to fill the shorter sequences. Therefore, some uncertainty is introduced. To solve this problem, by introducing three-dimensional grey incidence degree (3D-GID), a novel GID based on the multidimensional dynamic time warping distance (MDDTW distance-GID) is proposed. On the basis of it, the corresponding grey incidence clustering (MDDTW distance-GIC) method is constructed. It not only has the simpler computation process, but also can be applied to the incidence comparison between uncertain multidimensional sequences directly. The experiment shows that MDDTW distance-GIC is more accurate when dealing with the uncertain sequences. Compared with the traditional GIC method, the precision of the MDDTW distance-GIC method has increased nearly 30%.

Attitude stabilization of rigid spacecraft implemented in backstepping control with input delay
Xianting Bi and Xiaoping Shi
2017, 28(5):  955-962.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.13
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A backstepping method is used for nonlinear spacecraft attitude stabilization in the presence of external disturbances and time delay induced by the actuator. The kinematic model is established based on modified Rodrigues parameters (MRPs). Firstly, we get the desired angular velocity virtually drives the attitude parameters to origin, and then backstep it to the desired control torque required for stabilization. Considering the time delay induced by the actuator, the control torque functions only after the delayed time, therefore time compensation is needed in the controller. Stability analysis of the close-loop system is given afterwards. The infinite dimensional actuator state is modeled with a first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE), the L2 norm of the system state is constructed and is proved to be exponentially stable. An inverse optimality theorem is also employed during controller design. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed control law and it is robust to bounded externaldisturbances and time delay mismatch.

Trajectory online optimization for unmanned combat aerial vehicle using combined strategy
Kangsheng Dong, Hanqiao Huang, Changqiang Huang, and Zhuoran Zhang
2017, 28(5):  963-970.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.14
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This paper presents a combined strategy to solve the trajectory online optimization problem for unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV). Firstly, as trajectory directly optimizing is quite time costing, an online trajectory functional representation method is proposed. Considering the practical requirement of online trajectory, the 4-order polynomial function is used to represent the trajectory, and which can be determined by two independent parameters with the trajectory terminal conditions; thus, the trajectory online optimization problem is converted into the optimization of the two parameters, which largely lowers the complexity of the optimization problem. Furthermore, the scopes of the two parameters have been assessed into small ranges using the golden section ratio method. Secondly, a multi-population rotation strategy differential evolution approach (MPRDE) is designed to optimize the two parameters; in which, “current-to-best/1/bin”, “current-torand/1/bin” and “rand/2/bin” strategies with fixed parameter settings are designed, these strategies are rotationally used by three subpopulations. Thirdly, the rolling optimization method is applied to model the online trajectory optimization process. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and real-time calculation capability of the designed combined strategy for UCAV trajectory online optimizing under dynamic and complicated environments.

Improved design of online fault diagnoser for partially observed Petri nets with generalized mutual exclusion constraints
Jiufu Liu, Wenliang Liu, Jianyong Zhou, Yan Sun, and Zhisheng Wang
2017, 28(5):  971-978.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.15
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This paper investigates the fault detection problem for discrete event systems (DESs) which can be modeled by partially observed Petri nets (POPNs). To overcome the problem of low diagnosability in the POPN online fault diagnoser in current use, an improved online fault diagnosis algorithm that integrates generalized mutual exclusion constraints (GMECs) and integer linear programming (ILP) is proposed. Assume that the POPN structure and its initial markings are known, and the faults are modeled as unobservable transitions. First, the event sequence is observed and recorded. GMEC is used for elementary diagnosis of the system behavior, then the ILP problem of POPN is solved for further diagnosis. Finally, an example of a real DES to test the new fault diagnoser is analyzed. The proposed algorithm increases the diagnosability of the DES remarkably, and the effectiveness of the new algorithm integrating GMEC and ILP is verified.

Scheme of optimal fault detection for linear discrete time-varying systems with delayed state
Maiying Zhong, Jie Chen, and Yue Geng
2017, 28(5):  979-985.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.16
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This paper deals with the problem of the optimal fault detection (FD) for linear discrete time-varying (LDTV) systems with delayed state and l2-norm bounded unknown input. The novelty lies in the designing of an evaluation function for the robust FD. The basic idea is to directly construct an evaluation function by using a weighted l2-norm of the measurement output, which achieves an optimal trade-off between the sensitivity to fault and the robustness to l2-norm bounded unknown input. To avoid complex computation, a feasible solution is obtained via the recursive computation by applying the orthogonal projection. It is shown that such an evaluation function provides a unified scheme for both the cases of unknown input being l2-norm bounded and jointly normal distribution, while a threshold may be chosen based on a priori knowledge of unknown input. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Ellipsoidal bounding set-membership identification approach for robust fault diagnosis with application to mobile robots
Bo Zhou, Kun Qian, Xudong Ma, and Xianzhong Dai
2017, 28(5):  986-995.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.17
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A robust fault diagnosis approach is developed by incorporating a set-membership identification (SMI) method. A class of systems with linear models in the form of fault related parameters is investigated, with model uncertainties and parameter variations taken into account explicitly and treated as bounded errors. An ellipsoid bounding set-membership identification algorithm is proposed to propagate bounded uncertainties rigorously and the guaranteed feasible set of faults parameters enveloping true parameter values is given. Faults arised from abrupt parameter variations can be detected and isolated on-line by consistency check between predicted and observed parameter sets obtained in the identification procedure. The proposed approach provides the improved robustness with its ability to distinguish real faults from model uncertainties, which comes with the inherent guaranteed robustness of the set-membership framework. Efforts are also made in this work to balance between conservativeness and computation complexity of the overall algorithm. Simulation results for the mobile robot with several slipping faults scenarios demonstrate the correctness of the proposed approach for faults detection and isolation (FDI).

Partition region-based suppressed fuzzy C-means algorithm
Kun Zhang, Weiren Kong, Peipei Liu, Jiao Shi, Yu Lei, Jie Zou, and Min Liu
2017, 28(5):  996-1008.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.18
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Aimed at the problem that the traditional suppressed fuzzy C-means clustering algorithms ignore the real needs of different objects, applying the same suppressed parameter for modifying membership degrees of all the objects, a novel partition region-based suppressed fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm with better capacity of adaptability and robustness is proposed in this paper. The model based on the real needs of different objects is built, making it clear to decide whether to proceed with further determination; in addition, the external user-defined suppressed parameter is automatically selected according to the intrinsic structural characteristic of each dataset, making the proposed method become robust to the fluctuations in the incoming dataset and initial conditions. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more robust than its counterparts and overcomes the weakness of the original suppressed clustering algorithm in most cases.

Multi-label local discriminative embedding
Jujie Zhang, Min Fang, and Huimin Chai
2017, 28(5):  1009-1018.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.19
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Multi-label classification problems arise frequently in text categorization, and many other related applications. Like conventional categorization problems, multi-label categorization tasks suffer from the curse of high dimensionality. Existing multi-label dimensionality reduction methods mainly suffer from two limitations. First, latent nonlinear structures are not utilized in the input space. Second, the label information is not fully exploited. This paper proposes a new method, multi-label local discriminative embedding (MLDE), which exploits latent structures to minimize intraclass distances and maximize interclass distances on the basis of label correlations. The latent structures are extracted by constructing two sets of adjacency graphs to make use of nonlinear information. Non-symmetric label correlations, which are the case in real applications, are adopted. The problem is formulated into a global objective function and a linear mapping is achieved to solve out-of-sample problems. Empirical studies across 11 Yahoo sub-tasks, Enron and Bibtex are conducted to validate the superiority of MLDE to state-of-art multi-label dimensionality reduction methods.

Novel dynamic evidential Petri net for system reliability analysis
Wensheng Peng, Jianguo Zhang, and Jinyang Zhang
2017, 28(5):  1019-1027.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.20
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This paper proposes a novel dynamic Petri net (PN) model based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory, and this improved evidential Petri net (EPN) model is used in knowledge inference and reliability analysis of complex mechanical systems. The EPN could take epistemic uncertainty such as interval information, subjective information into account by applying D-S evidence quantification theory. A dynamic representation model is also proposed based on the dynamic operation rules of the EPN model, and an improved artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is employed to proceed optimization calculation during the complex systems’ learning process. The improved ABC algorithm and D-S evidence theory overcome the disadvantage of extremely subjective in traditional knowledge inference efficiently and thus could improve the accuracy of the EPN learning model. Through a simple numerical case and a satellite driving system analysis, this paper proves the superiority of the EPN and the dynamic knowledge representation method in reliability analysis of complex systems.

Residual lifetime prediction model of nonlinear accelerated degradation data with measurement error
Zhongyi Cai, Yunxiang Chen, Qiang Zhang, and Huachun Xiang
2017, 28(5):  1028-1038.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2017.05.21
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For the product degradation process with random effect (RE), measurement error (ME) and nonlinearity in step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT), the nonlinear Wiener based degradation model with RE and ME is built. An analytical approximation to the probability density function (PDF) of the product’s lifetime is derived in a closed form. The process and data of SSADT are analyzed to obtain the relation model of the observed data under each accelerated stress. The likelihood function for the population-based observed data is constructed. The populationbased model parameters and its random coefficient prior values are estimated. According to the newly observed data of the target product in SSADT, an analytical approximation to the PDF of its residual lifetime (RL) is derived in accordance with its individual degradation characteristics. The parameter updating method based on Bayesian inference is applied to obtain the posterior value of random coefficient of the RL model. A numerical example by simulation is analyzed to verify the accuracy and advantage of the proposed model.