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21 August 2008, Volume 19 Issue 4
Comparison between two concepts of angular glint: general considerations
Wang Chao, Yin Hongcheng & Huang Peikang
2008, 19(4):  635-642. 
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Angular glint can be interpreted as a distortion of the radar echo signal phase front, or alternatively, a tilt of the direction of energy flow from the radial direction. As the complementarities and support of argumentation in our previous work, a general discussion about two concepts of angular glint is made based on electromagnetic theory to demonstrate that these two concepts are equivalent when geometrical optics approximation is used and the receiving antenna is linearly polarized.

Recent progress on space-borne microwave sounder pre-launch calibration technologies in China
Nian Feng, Yang Yujie, Chen Yunmei, Xu Dezhong & Wang Wei
2008, 19(4):  643-651. 
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The development processes and the application achievements of space-borne microwave sounder prelaunch calibration technologies in China are introduced briefly. Then, the general project plan for pre-launch calibration, the latest research achievements on the optimization and development of the microwave wide band calibration targets, emissivity measurement technologies and the system level uncertainty analysis of the laboratory, and the thermal/vacuum microwave sounder calibration system for “FY-3” meteorological satellite are reported, respectively. Finally, the key technological problems of the calibration technologies under researching are analyzed predictively.

Energy-efficient and security-optimized AES hardware design for ubiquitous computing
Chen Yicheng, Zou Xuecheng, Liu Zhenglin, Han Yu & Zheng Zhaoxia
2008, 19(4):  652-658. 
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Ubiquitous computing must incorporate a certain level of security. For the severely resource constrained applications, the energy-efficient and small size cryptography algorithm implementation is a critical problem. Hardware implementations of the advanced encryption standard (AES) for authentication and encryption are presented. An energy consumption variable is derived to evaluate low-power design strategies for battery-powered devices. It proves that compact AES architectures fail to optimize the AES hardware energy, whereas reducing invalid switching activities and implementing power-optimized sub-modules are the reasonable methods. Implementations of different substitution box (S-Boxes) structures are presented with 0.25 μm 1.8 V CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) standard cell library. The comparisons and trade-offs among area, security, and power are explored. The experimental results show that Galois field composite S-Boxes have smaller size and highest security but consume considerably more power, whereas decoder-switch-encoder S-Boxes have the best power characteristics with disadvantages in terms of size and security. The combination of these two type S-Boxes instead of homogeneous S-Boxes in AES circuit will lead to optimal schemes. The technique of latch-dividing data path is analyzed, and the quantitative simulation results demonstrate that this approach diminishes the glitches effectively at a very low hardware cost.

Grey systems for intelligent sensors and information processing
Chen Chunlin, Dong Daoyi, Chen Zonghai & Wang Haibo
2008, 19(4):  659-665. 
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In a measurement system, new representation methods are necessary to maintain the uncertainty and to supply more powerful ability for reasoning and transformation between numerical system and symbolic system. A grey measurement system is discussed from the point of view of intelligent sensors and incomplete information processing compared with a numerical and symbolized measurement system. The methods of grey representation and information processing are proposed for data collection and reasoning. As a case study, multi-ultrasonic sensor systems are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Volterra series based predistortion for broadband RF power amplifiers with memory effects
Jin Zhe, Song Zhihuan & He Jiaming
2008, 19(4):  666-671. 
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RF power amplifiers (PAs) are usually considered as memoryless devices in most existing predistortion techniques. However, in broadband communication systems, such as WCDMA, the PA memory effects are significant, and memoryless predistortion cannot linearize the PAs effectively. After analyzing the PA memory effects, a novel predistortion method based on the simplified Volterra series is proposed to linearize broadband RF PAs with emory effects. The indirect learning architecture is adopted to design the predistortion scheme and the recursive least squares algorithm with forgetting factor is applied to identify the parameters of the predistorter. Simulation results show that the proposed predistortion method can compensate the nonlinear distortion and memory effects of broadband RF PAs effectively.

Periodic performance of the chaotic spread spectrum sequence on finite precision
Zhu Canyan, Zhang Lihua, Wang Yiming, Liu Jiasheng & Mao Lingfeng
2008, 19(4):  672-678. 
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It is well known that the periodic performance of spread spectrum sequence heavily affects the correlative and secure characteristics of communication systems. The chaotic binary sequence is paid more and more attention since it is one kind of applicable spread spectrum sequences. However, there are unavoidable short cyclic roblems for chaotic binary sequences in finite precision. The chaotic binary sequence generating methods are tudied first. Then the short cyclic behavior of the chaotic sequences is analyzed in detail, which are generated by quantification approaches with finite word-length. At the same time, a chaotic similar function is defined for presenting the cyclic characteristics of the sequences. Based on these efforts, an improved method with scrambling ontrol for generating chaotic binary sequences is proposed. To quantitatively describe the improvement of periodic performance of the sequences, an orthogonal estimator is also defined. Some simulating results are provided. From the theoretical deduction and the experimental results, it is concluded that the proposed method can effectively increase the period and raise the complexity of the chaotic sequences to some extent.

Analysis for MIMO correlated frequency-selective channel in the presence of interference
Xiao Hailin, Nie Zaiping, Li Xin & Ouyang Shan
2008, 19(4):  679-682. 
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The space time spreading, superimposed training sequences, and space-time coding are used to present a multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) systems model, and a closed-form of average error probability upper bound expression for MIMO correlated frequency-selective channel in the presence of interference (co-channel interference and jamming signals) is derived. Moreover, the correlation at both ends of the wireless link that can be incorporated equivalently into correlation at the transmit end is also derived, which is significant to analyze space-time link algorithm of MIMO systems

Improved algorithm of atmospheric refraction error in Longley-Rice channel model
Wang Zuliang, Zheng Mao, Wang Juan & Zheng Linhua
2008, 19(4):  683-687. 
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Longley-Rice channel model modifies the atmospheric refraction by the equivalent earth radius method, which is simple calculation but is not accurate. As it only uses the horizontal difference, but does not make use of the vertical section information, it does not agree with the actual propagation path. The atmospheric refraction error correction method of the Longley-Rice channel model has been improved. The improved method makes use of the vertical section information sufficiently and maps the distance between the receiver and transmitter to the radio wave propagation distance. It can exactly reflect the infection of propagation distance for the radio wave propagation loss. It is predicted to be more close to the experimental results by simulation in comparison with the measured data. The effectiveness of improved methods is proved by simulation.

Deconvolution techniques for characterizing indoor UWB wireless channel
Wang Yang, Zhang Naitong, Zhang Qinyu & Zhang Zhongzhao
2008, 19(4):  688-693. 
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A deconvolution algorithm is proposed to account for the distortions of impulse shape introduced by propagation process. By finding the best correlation of the received waveform with the multiple templates, the number of multipath components is reduced as the result of eliminating the “phantom paths”, and the captured energy increases. Moreover, it needs only a single reference measurement in real measurement environment (do not need the anechoic chamber), which by far simplifies the templates acquiring procedure.

Design and simulation of a Torus topology for network on chip
Wu Chang, Li Yubai & Chai Song
2008, 19(4):  694-701. 
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Aiming at the applications of NOC (network on chip) technology in rising scale and complexity on chip systems, a Torus structure and corresponding route algorithm for NOC is proposed. This Torus structure improves traditional Torus topology and redefines the denotations of the routers. Through redefining the router denotations and changing the original router locations, the Torus structure for NOC application is reconstructed. On the basis of this structure, a dead-lock and live-lock free route algorithm is designed according to dimension increase. System C is used to implement this structure and the route algorithm is simulated. In the four different traffic patterns, average, hotspot 13%, hotspot 67% and transpose, the average delay and normalization throughput of this Torus structure are evaluated. Then, the performance of delay and throughput between this Torus and Mesh structure is compared. The results indicate that this Torus structure is more suitable for NOC applications.

Research on the self-defence electronic jamming decision-making based on the discrete dynamic Bayesian network
Tang Zheng & Gao Xiaoguang
2008, 19(4):  702-708. 
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The manner and conditions of running the decision-making system with self-defense electronic jamming are given. After proposing the scenario of applying discrete dynamic Bayesian network to the decision making with self-defense electronic jamming, a decision-making model with self-defense electronic jamming based on the discrete dynamic Bayesian network is established. Then jamming decision inferences by the aid of the algorithm of discrete dynamic Bayesian network are carried on. The simulating result shows that this method is able to synthesize different targets which are not predominant. In this way, various features at the same time, as well as the same feature appearing at different time complement mutually; in addition, the accuracy and reliability of electronic jamming decision making are enhanced significantly.

Super-resolution processing of passive millimeter-wave images based on adaptive projected Landweber algorithm
Zheng Xin & Yang Jianyu
2008, 19(4):  709-716. 
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Passive millimeter wave (PMMW) images inherently have the problem of poor resolution owing to limited aperture dimension. Thus, efficient post-processing is necessary to achieve resolution improvement. An adaptive projected Landweber (APL) super-resolution algorithm using a spectral correction procedure, which attempts to combine the strong points of all of the projected Landweber (PL) iteration and the adaptive relaxation parameter adjustment and the spectral correction method, is proposed. In the algorithm, the PL iterations are implemented as the main image restoration scheme and a spectral correction method is included in which the calculated pectrum within the passband is replaced by the known low frequency component. Then, the algorithm updates the relaxation parameter adaptively at each iteration. A qualitative evaluation of this algorithm is performed with simulated data as well as actual radiometer image captured by 91.5 GHz mechanically scanned radiometer. From experiments, it is found that the super-resolution algorithm obtains better results and enhances the resolution and as lower mean square error (MSE). These constraints and adaptive character and spectral correction procedures speed up the convergence of the Landweber algorithm and reduce the ringing effects that are caused by regularizing the image restoration problem.

Cauchy pdf modelling and its application to SAR image despeckling
Chen Guozhong & Liu Xingzhao
2008, 19(4):  717-721. 
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Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is a kind of coherent system that produces a random pattern, named speckle, which degrades the merit of SAR images and affects their further application seriously. Therefore, how to restore SAR image from the speckle has become a necessary step in post-processing of image. A new despeckling method is putforth on the basis of wavelet. First, a new approach on the basis of “second kind statistics” is used to estimate the dispersion parameter of the Cauchy distribution. Then, this Cauchy prior is applied to model the distribution of the wavelet coefficients for the log-transformed reflectance of SAR image. Based on the above ideas, a new homomorphic wavelet-based maximum a posterior (MAP) despeckling method is proposed. Finally, the simulated speckled image and the real SAR image are used to verify our proposed method and the results show that it outperforms the other methods in terms of the speckle reduction and the feature retention.

New coordination scheme for multi-robot systems based on state space models
Xie Wenlong, Su Jianbo & Lin Zongli
2008, 19(4):  722-734. 
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A new coordination scheme for multi-robot systems is proposed. A state space model of the multirobot system is defined and constructed in which the system’s initial and goal states are included along with the task definition and the system’s internal and external constraints. Task accomplishment is considered a transition of the system state in its state space (SS) under the system’s constraints. Therefore, if there exists a connectable path within reachable area of the SS from the initial state to the goal state, the task is realizable. The optimal strategy for the task realization under constraints is investigated and reached by searching for the optimal state transition trajectory of the robot system in the SS. Moreover, if there is no connectable path, which means the task cannot be performed successfully, the task could be transformed to be realizable by making the initial state and the goal state connectable and finding a path connecting them in the system’s SS. This might be done via adjusting the system’s configuration and/or task constraints. Experiments of multi-robot formation control with obstacles in the environment are conducted and simulation results show the validity of the proposed method.

Algorithms for degree-constrained Euclidean Steiner minimal tree
Zhang Jin, Ma Liang & Zhang Liantang
2008, 19(4):  735-741. 
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A new problem of degree-constrained Euclidean Steiner minimal tree is discussed, which is quite useful in several fields. Although it is slightly different from the traditional degree-constrained minimal spanning tree, it is also NP-hard. Two intelligent algorithms are proposed in an attempt to solve this difficult problem. Series of numerical examples are tested, which demonstrate that the algorithms also work well in practice.

Application of rough graph in relationship mining
He Tong, Xue Peijun & Shi Kaiquan
2008, 19(4):  742-747. 
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Based on the definition of class shortest path in weighted rough graph, class shortest path algorithm in weighted rough graph is presented, which extends classical shortest path algorithm. The application in relationship mining shows effectiveness of it.

New model for load-sharing k-out-of-n: G system with different components
Tang Yinghui & Zhang Jing
2008, 19(4):  748-751. 
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On the basis of capacity flow model, a new model is developed for a load-sharing k-out-of-n: G system consisting of different components, to describe the increase of the same component’s failure rates under different loads. All components have exponential life distributions and are nonrepairable in the system. Reliability of loadsharing 2-out- of-3: G system is calculated and some special cases for the system are discussed. The calculation and discussions show that the model is right and practical.

Singularly perturbed bifurcation subsystem and its application in power systems
An Yichun, Zhang Qingling, Zhu Yukun & Zhang Yan
2008, 19(4):  752-757. 
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The singularly perturbed bifurcation subsystem is described, and the test conditions of subsystem persistence are deduced. By use of fast and slow reduced subsystem model, the result does not require performing nonlinear transformation. Moreover, it is shown and proved that the persistence of the periodic orbits for Hopf bifurcation in the reduced model through center manifold. Van der Pol oscillator circuit is given to illustrate the persistence of bifurcation subsystems with the full dynamic system.

Delay-dependent state feedback robust stabilization for uncertain singular time-delay systems
Gao Huanli & Xu Bugong
2008, 19(4):  758-765. 
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The problem of robust stabilization for uncertain singular time-delay systems is studied. First, a new delay-dependent asymptotic stability criteria for normal singular time-delay systems is given, which is less conservative. Using this result, the problem of state feedback robust stabilization for uncertain singular time-delay systems is discussed. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

Delay-dependent decentralized H∞ filtering for uncertain interconnected systems
Chen Ning, Gui Weihua & Zhang Xiaofeng
2008, 19(4):  766-774. 
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This article considers delay dependent decentralized H∞ filtering for a class of uncertain interconnected systems, where the uncertainties are assumed to be time varying and satisfy the norm-bounded conditions. First, combining the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and the delay integral inequality of matrices, a sufficient condition of the existence of the robust decentralized H∞ filter is derived, which makes the error systems asymptotically stable and satisfies the H∞ norm of the transfer function from noise input to error output less than the specified up-bound on the basis of the form of uncertainties. Then, the above sufficient condition is transformed to a system of easily solvable LMIs via a series of equivalent transformation. Finally, the numerical simulation shows the efficiency of the main results.

Study of the control-equilibrium of control systems
Liu Qiaoge, Fu Mengyin & Sun Changsheng
2008, 19(4):  775-778. 
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Not so much had been talked about equilibrium in control area. On the basis of the phenomenon of balance, the concept of control-equilibrium and control-equilibrium of a control system is proposed. According to this theory, a perfect control method should not only guarantee stability of the system, but also ensure the control-equilibrium of the system. To achieve the control-equilibrium, feed-forward control is required.

Linear generalized synchronization of chaotic systems with uncertain parameters
Jia Zhen
2008, 19(4):  779-784. 
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A more general form of projective synchronization, so called linear generalized synchronization (LGS) is proposed, which includes the generalized projective synchronization (GPS) and the hybrid projective synchronization (HPS) as its special cases. Based on the adaptive technique and Lyapunov stability theory, a general method for achieving the LGS between two chaotic or hyperchaotic systems with uncertain parameters in any scaling matrix is presented. Some numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed synchronization method.

Robust stability analysis for a cruise missile
Shi Yingjing, Ma Guangfu & Ma Hongzhong
2008, 19(4):  785-790. 
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A global controller design methodology for a flight stage of the cruise missile is proposed. This methodology is based on the method of least squares. To prove robust stability in the full airspace with parameter disturbances, the concepts of convex polytopic models and quadratic stability are introduced. The effect of aerodynamic parameters on system performance is analyzed. The designed controller is applied to track the overloading signal of the cruise segment of the cruise missile, avoiding system disturbance owing to controller switching. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Robust reliable guaranteed cost control for nonlinear singular stochastic systems with time delay
Zhang Aiqing & Fang Huajing
2008, 19(4):  791-798. 
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To study the design problem of robust reliable guaranteed cost controller for nonlinear singular stochastic systems, the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to represent a nonlinear singular stochastic system with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties and time delay. Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques and stability theory of stochastic differential equations, a stochastic Lyapunov function method is adopted to design a state feedback fuzzy controller. The resulting closed-loop fuzzy system is robustly reliable stochastically stable, and the corresponding quadratic cost function is guaranteed to be no more than a certain upper bound for all admissible uncertainties, as well as different actuator fault cases. A sufficient condition of existence and design method of robust reliable guaranteed cost controller is presented. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Trajectory linearization control of an aerospace vehicle based on RBF neural network
Xue Yali & Jiang Changsheng
2008, 19(4):  799-805. 
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An enhanced trajectory linearization control (TLC) structure based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and its application on an aerospace vehicle (ASV) flight control system are presensted. The influence of unknown disturbances and uncertainties is reduced by RBFNN thanks to its approaching ability, and a robustifying item is used to overcome the approximate error of RBFNN. The parameters adaptive adjusting laws are designed on the Lyapunov theory. The uniform ultimate boundedness of all signals of the composite closed-loop system is proved based on Lyapunov theory. Finally, the flight control system of an ASV is designed based on the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the designed approach.

Prediction and analysis of chaotic time series on the basis of support vector
Li Tianliang, He Liming & Li Haipeng
2008, 19(4):  806-811. 
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Based on discussion on the theories of support vector machines (SVM), an one-step prediction model for time series prediction is presented, wherein the chaos theory is incorporated. Chaotic character of the time series is taken into account in the prediction procedure; parameters of reconstruction-delay and embedding-dimension for phase-space reconstruction are calculated in light of mutual-information and false-nearest-neighbor method, respectively. Precision and functionality have been demonstrated by the experimental results on the basis of the prediction of Lorenz chaotic time series.

Robust location algorithm for NLOS environments
Huang Jiyan & Wan Qun
2008, 19(4):  812-818. 
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One of the main problems facing accurate location in wireless communication systems is non-line-ofsight (NLOS) propagation. Traditional location algorithms are based on classical techniques under minimizing a least-squares objective function and it loses optimality when the NLOS error distribution deviates from Gaussian distribution. An effective location algorithm based on a robust objective function is proposed to mitigate NLOS errors. The proposed method does not require the prior knowledge of the NLOS error distribution and can give a closed-form solution. A comparison is performed in different NLOS environments between the proposed algorithm and two additional ones (LS method and Chan’s method with an NLOS correction). The proposed algorithm clearly outperforms the other two.

Virtual reality mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks
Yu Ziyue, Gong Bo & He Xingui
2008, 19(4):  819-826. 
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For wireless ad hoc networks simulation, node’s mobility pattern and traffic pattern are two key elements. A new simulation model is presented based on the virtual reality collision detection algorithm in obstacle environment, and the model uses the path planning method to avoid obstacles and to compute the node’s moving path. Obstacles also affect node’s signal propagation. Considering these factors, this study implements the mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that the model has a significant impact on the performance of protocols.

Concise review of relaxations and approximation algorithms for nonidentical parallel-machine scheduling to minimize total weighted completion times
Li Kai & Yang Shanlin
2008, 19(4):  827-834. 
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A class of nonidentical parallel machine scheduling problems are considered in which the goal is to minimize the total weighted completion time. Models and relaxations are collected. Most of these problems are NP-hard, in the strong sense, or open problems, therefore approximation algorithms are studied. The review reveals that there exist some potential areas worthy of further research.

Novel load balancing DHT scheme for the heterogeneous system
Li Yujun, Lu Xianliang & Hou Mengshu
2008, 19(4):  835-842. 
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The capacities of the nodes in the peer-to-peer system are strongly heterogeneous, hence one can benefit from distributing the load, based on the capacity of the nodes. At first a model is discussed to evaluate the load balancing of the heterogeneous system, and then a novel load balancing scheme is proposed based on the concept of logical servers and the randomized binary tree, and theoretical guarantees are given. Finally, the feasibility of the scheme using extensive simulations is proven.

Stability condition of FAST TCP in high speed network on the basis of control theory
Zhao Fuzhe, Zhou Jianzhong, Luo Zhimeng & Xiao Yang
2008, 19(4):  843-850. 
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Considering the instability of data transferred existing in high speed network, a new method is proposed for improving the stability using control theory. Under this method, the mathematical model of such a network is established. Stability condition is derived from the mathematical model. Several simulation experiments are performed. The results show that the method can increase the stability of data transferred in terms of the congestion window, queue size, and sending rate of the source.

Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks
Yi Ping, Jiang Xinghao, Wu Yue & Liu Ning
2008, 19(4):  851-859. 
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Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) has become an exciting and important technology in recent years, because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices. Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized monitoring and management point. The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features. A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given. A cluster-based detection scheme is presented, where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster. These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions, but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection. And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing (DSR). The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata, and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data. Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent, the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness. Finally, the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

Identity-based authentication protocol for grid
Li Hongwei, Sun Shixin & Yang Haomiao
2008, 19(4):  860-865. 
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Current grid authentication frameworks are achieved by applying the standard SSL authentication protocol (SAP). The authentication process is very complicated, and therefore, the grid user is in a heavily loaded point both in computation and in communication. Based on identity-based architecture for grid (IBAG) and corresponding encryption and signature schemes, an identity-based authentication protocol for grid is proposed. Being certificate-free, the authentication protocol aligns well with the demands of grid computing. Through simulation testing, it is seen that the authentication protocol is more lightweight and efficient than SAP, especially the more lightweight user side. This contributes to the larger grid scalability.