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22 August 2014, Volume 25 Issue 4
Codebook design for uplink of densely small cells
Weikai Tan, Aihuang Guo, Wei Luo, Wenjuan Sheng, and Yeqing Qian
2014, 25(4):  531.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00061
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The shrinking of cell-size brings significant changes to the wireless uplink of densely small cells (DSCs). A codebook design is proposed that utilizes the strong line of sight (LoS) channel component existing in a DSC system for uplink of the DSC system. To further improve the uplink performance, the high-rank codebook is designed based on singular value decomposition (SVD) due to the unnecessary preservation of strict constant modulus in the DSC system. And according to the simulation result, the proposed codebook leads to significant sum-rate gain and appreciable block error rate (BLER) performance improvement in the DSC system.

Direct P-code acquisition algorithm based on bidirectional overlap technique
Ying Xu, Lijuan Xu, Hong Yuan, and Ruidan Luo
2014, 25(4):  538.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00062
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According to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss of average algorithms in direct P-code acquisition method, this paper analyzes the SNR performance of the overlap average algorithm quantitatively, and derives the relationship of SNR loss with overlap shift value and initial average phase difference in the overlap
average algorithm. On this basis, the bidirectional overlap average algorithm based on optimal correlation SNR is proposed. The algorithm maintains SNR consistent in the entire initial average phase difference space, and has a better SNR performance than the overlap average algorithm. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by both theoretical analysis and simulation results. The SNR performance of the bidirectional overlap average algorithm is 5 dB better than that of the direct average algorithm, and 2 dB better than that of the overlap average algorithm, which provides the support for direct P-code acquisition in low SNR.

Near optimal condition of OMP algorithm in recovering sparse signal from noisy measurement
Jia Li, Qiang Wang, and Yi Shen
2014, 25(4):  547.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00063
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This paper analyzes the performance of the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm in recovering sparse signals from noisy measurement. Considering the fact that some matrices satisfy some restricted isometry properties (RIPs) but not the coherence condition, a superior RIP-based condition is proposed, which means that if the measurement matrix satisfies δk+1 < 1/(2 + √k) and the minimum component signal-to-noise ratio (MCSNR) is bounded, the OMP algorithm can exactly identify the support of the original sparse signal within k iterations. Finally, the theoretical results are verified by numerical simulations concerning different values of MCSNR and noise levels.

Low side lobe pattern synthesis using projection method with genetic algorithm for truncated cone conformal phased arrays
Guoqi Zeng, Siyin Li, Yan Zhang, and Shanwei Lu
2014, 25(4):  554.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00064
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A hybrid method for synthesizing antenna’s three dimensional (3D) pattern is proposed to obtain the low sidelobe feature of truncated cone conformal phased arrays. In this method, the elements of truncated cone conformal phased arrays are projected to the tangent plane in one generatrix of the truncated
cone. Then two dimensional (2D) Chebyshev amplitude distribution optimization is respectively used in two mutual vertical directions of the tangent plane. According to the location of the elements, the excitation current amplitude distribution of each element on the conformal structure is derived reversely, then the excitation current amplitude is further optimized by using the genetic algorithm (GA). A truncated cone problem with 8×8 elements on it, and a 3D pattern desired side lobe level (SLL) up to 35 dB, is studied. By using the hybrid method, the optimal goal is accomplished with acceptable CPU time, which indicates that this hybrid method for the low sidelobe synthesis is feasible.

Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler
Hui Xie, Fenghua Wang, and Zhitao Huang
2014, 25(4):  560.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00065
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An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The linear feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations according to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spectrum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Finally, case studies are presented to illustrate the performance of the blind reconstruction method.

Cramer-Rao bound of joint estimation of target location and velocity for coherent MIMO radar
Peilin Sun, Jun Tang, and Shuang Wan
2014, 25(4):  566.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00066
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The optimal estimation performance of target parameters is studied. First, the general form of Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for joint estimation of target location and velocity is derived for coherent multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radars. To gain some insight into the behavior of the CRB, the CRB with a set of given orthogonal waveforms is studied as a specific case. Second, a maximum likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm is proposed. The mean square error (MSE) of the ML estimation of target location and velocity is obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and it approaches CRB in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region.

Knowledge-based detection method for SAR targets
Fei Gao, Achang Ru, Jun Wang, and Shiyi Mao
2014, 25(4):  573.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00067
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When the classical constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) combined with fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm is applied to target detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with complex background, CFAR requires block-by-block estimation of clutter models and FCM clustering converges to local optimum. To
address these problems, this paper pro-poses a new detection algorithm: knowledge-based combined with improved genetic algorithm-fuzzy C-means (GA-FCM) algorithm. Firstly, the algorithm takes target region’s maximum and average intensity, area, length of long axis and long-to-short axis ratio of the external ellipse as factors which influence the target appearing probability. The knowledge-based detection algorithm can produce preprocess results without the need of estimation of clutter models as CFAR does. Afterward the GA-FCM algorithm is improved to cluster pre-process results. It has advantages of incorporating global optimizing ability of GA and local optimizing ability of FCM, which will further eliminate false alarms and get better results. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is experimentally validated with real SAR images.

Switching variability index based multiple strategy CFAR detector
Yang Li, Zhenyuan Ji, Bingfei Li, and Gil Alterovitz
2014, 25(4):  580.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00068
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A switching variability index (SVI) constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector is proposed for improving the detection performance of VI-CFAR detectors in multiple targets backgrounds. When the presence of non-homogeneity in CFAR reference windows is indicated by a VI-CFAR detector, a switching-CFAR detector is introduced to optimize the performance of the VI-CFAR detector in homogeneous, multiple targets and clutter edge backgrounds. The structure and parameters selection method of the SVI-CFAR detector is presented. Comparisons with classic CFAR detectors and recently proposed detectors are also given. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that SVICFAR detector maintains the good performance of the VI-CFAR detector in homogeneous and clutter edge backgrounds, while greatly improving the capacity of anti-multi targets.

Multi-dimensional scattering properties diagnosis system of scale aircraft model in an anechoic chamber
Chufeng Hu, Zhou Zhou, Nanjing Li and Kun Zhang
2014, 25(4):  588.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00069
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Aiming at the concept of “diagnosis”, a simple and effective broadband radar cross section (RCS) measurement system is constructed, and some multi-dimensional scattering properties diagnosis techniques are presented based on the system. Firstly, a stepped-frequency signal is employed to achieve high range resolution, combining with a variety of signal processing techniques. Secondly, cross-range resolution is gained with a rotating table, and the high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) imaging of the scale model is obtained by the microwave imaging theory. Finally, two receiving antennas with a small distance in altitude are used, and the three-dimensional (3-D) height distribution of scattering points on the scale model is extracted from the phase of images. Some typical bodies and a scale aircraft model are diagnosed in an anechoic chamber. The experimental results show that, after scaling with a metal sphere, the accurate onedimensional (1-D) RCS pattern of the model is obtained, and it has a large dynamic range. When the bandwidth of the transmitting signal is 4 GHz, the resolution of the 2-D image can reach to 0.037 5 m. The 3-D height distribution of scattering points is given by interferometric measurement. This paper provides a feasible way to obtain high-precision scattering properties parameters of the scale aircraft model in a conventional rectangular anechoic chamber.

Route strategy of satellite network in GNSS based on topology evolution law
Xianqing Yi, Zhenwei Hou, Tao Zhong, Yaohong Zhang, and Zhili Sun
2014, 25(4):  596.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00070
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As each type of satellite network has different link features, its data transmission must be designed based on its link features to improve the efficiency of data transferring. The transmission of navigation integrated services information (NISI) in a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) with inter-satellite links (ISLs) is studied by taking the real situation of inter-satellite communication links into account. An on-demand computing and buffering centralized route strategy is proposed based on dynamic grouping and the topology evolution law of the GNSS network within which the satellite nodes are operated in the manner of dynamic grouping. Dynamic grouping is based on satellites spatial relationships and the group role of the satellite node changes by turns due to its spatial relationships. The route strategy provides significant advantages of high efficiency, low complexity, and flexible configuration, by which the established GNSS can possess the features and capabilities of feasible deployment, efficient transmission, convenient management, structural invulnerability and flexible expansion.

Memetic algorithm for multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problems
Shixin Liu, Di Chen, and Yifan Wang
2014, 25(4):  609.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00071
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A memetic algorithm (MA) for a multi-mode resourceconstrained project scheduling problem (MRCPSP) is proposed. We use a new fitness function and two very effective local search procedures in the proposed MA. The fitness function makes use of a mechanism called “strategic oscillation” to make the search process have a higher probability to visit solutions around a “feasible boundary”. One of the local search procedures aims at improving the lower bound of project makespan to be less than a known upper bound, and another aims at improving a solution of an MRCPSP instance accepting infeasible solutions based on the new fitness function in the search process. A detailed computational experiment is set up using instances from the problem instance library PSPLIB. Computational results show that the proposed MA is very competitive with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The MA obtains improved solutions for one instance of set J30.

Ranking grey numbers based on dominance grey degrees
Yong Liu Jeffrey Forrest, and Naiming Xie
2014, 25(4):  618.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00072
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With respect to the decision making problems where a lot of fuzzy and grey information always exists in the real-life decision making information system, it is difficult for such uncertainty methods as fuzzy mathematics, probability, and interval numbers to deal with. To this end, based on the thought and method of grey numbers, grey degrees and interval numbers, the concept of dominance grey degree is defined. And then a method of ranking interval grey numbers based on the dominance grey degree is proposed. After discussing the relevant properties, the paper finally uses an example to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the model. The result shows that the proposed model can more accurately describe uncertainty decision making problems,
and realize the total ordering process for multiple-attribute decision-making problems.

Progress in reentry trajectory planning for hypersonic vehicle
Jiang Zhao, Rui Zhou, and Xuelian Jin
2014, 25(4):  627.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00073
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The reentry trajectory planning for hypersonic vehicles is critical and challenging in the presence of numerous nonlinear equations of motion and path constraints, as well as guaranteed satisfaction of accuracy in meeting all the specified boundary conditions. In the last ten years, many researchers have investigated various strategies to generate a feasible or optimal constrained reentry trajectory for hypersonic vehicles. This paper briefly reviews the new research efforts to promote the capability of reentry trajectory planning. The progress of the onboard reentry trajectory planning, reentry trajectory optimization, and landing footprint is summarized. The main challenges of reentry trajectory planning for hypersonic vehicles are analyzed, focusing on the rapid reentry trajectory optimization, complex geographic constraints, and cooperative strategies.

Robust bounded control for uncertain flight dynamics using disturbance observer
Mou Chen and Bin Jiang
2014, 25(4):  640.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00074
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The robust bounded flight control scheme is developed for the uncertain longitudinal flight dynamics of the fighter with control input saturation invoking the backstepping technique. To enhance the disturbance rejection ability of the robust flight control for fighters, the sliding mode disturbance observer is designed to estimate the compounded disturbance including the unknown external disturbance and the effect of the control input saturation. Based on the backstepping technique and the compounded disturbance estimated output, the robust bounded flight control scheme is proposed for the fighter with the unknown external disturbance and the control input saturation. The closed-loop system stability under the developed robust bounded flight control scheme is rigorously proved using the Lyapunov method and the uniformly asymptotical convergences of all closed-loop signals are guaranteed. Finally, simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed robust bounded flight control scheme for the uncertain longitudinal flight dynamics of the fighter.

Adaptive actuator failure compensation and disturbance rejection scheme for spacecraft
Xuelian Yao, Gang Tao, and Ruiyun Qi
2014, 25(4):  648.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00075
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An adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme is proposed for attitude tracking control of spacecraft with unknown disturbances and uncertain actuator failures. A new feature of this adaptive control scheme is the adaptation of the failure pattern parameter estimates, as well as the failure signal parameter estimates, for direct adaptive actuator failure compensation. Based on an adaptive backstepping control design, the estimates of the disturbance parameters are used to solve the disturbance rejection problem. The unknown disturbances are compensated completely with the stability of the whole closed-loop system. The scheme is not only able to accommodate uncertain actuator failures, but also robust against unknown external disturbances. Simulation results
verify the desired adaptive actuator failure compensation performance.

Stability of stochastic switched epidemic systems with discrete or distributed time delay
Xiaoying Meng and Feiqi Deng
2014, 25(4):  660.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00076
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Stochastic switched epidemic systems with a discrete or distributed time delay are constructed and investigated. By the Lyapunov method and Itˆ o’s differential rule, the existence and uniqueness of global positive solution of each system is proved. And stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium of the systems are obtained. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the results.

Distributed tracking for networked Euler-Lagrange systems without velocity measurements
Qingkai Yang, Hao Fang, Yutian Mao and Jie Huang
2014, 25(4):  671.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00077
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The problem of distributed coordinated tracking control for networked Euler-Lagrange systems without velocity measurements is investigated. Under the condition that only a portion of the followers have access to the leader, sliding mode estimators are developed to estimate the states of the dynamic leader in finite time. To cope with the absence of velocity measurements, the distributed observers which only use position information are designed. Based on the outputs of the estimators and observers, distributed tracking control laws are proposed such that all the followers with parameter uncertainties can track the dynamic leader under a directed graph containing a spanning tree. It is shown that the distributed observer-controller guarantees asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system. Numerical simulations are worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of the control laws.

Robust key point descriptor for multi-spectral image matching
Yueming Qin, Zhiguo Cao, Wen Zhuo, and Zhenghong Yu
2014, 25(4):  681.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00078
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Histogram of collinear gradient-enhanced coding (HCGEC), a robust key point descriptor for multi-spectral image matching, is proposed. The HCGEC mainly encodes rough structures within an image and suppresses detailed textural information, which is desirable in multi-spectral image matching. Experiments
on two multi-spectral data sets demonstrate that the proposed descriptor can yield significantly better results than some state-ofthe- art descriptors.

Single foggy image restoration based on spatial correlation analysis of dark channel prior
Yan Tian, Dong Xia, and Yiping Xu
2014, 25(4):  688.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00079
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Focusing on the degradation of foggy images, a restoration approach from a single image based on spatial correlation of dark channel prior is proposed. Firstly, the transmission of each pixel is estimated by the spatial correlation of dark channel prior. Secondly, a degradation model is utilized to restore the foggy image. Thirdly, the final recovered image, with enhanced contrast, is obtained by performing a post-processing technique based on just-noticeable difference. Experimental results demonstrate that the information of a foggy image can be recovered perfectly by the proposed method, even in the case of the abrupt depth changing scene.

Exact inference for two exponential populations with competing risks data
Song Mao, Yimin Shi, and Liang Wang
2014, 25(4):  711.  doi:10.1109/JSEE.2014.00081
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In a reliability comparative test, the joint censoring model is usually adopted to evaluate the performances of units with the same facility. However, most researchers ignore the possibility that there is more than one factor for the failure when a test unit fails. To solve this problem, we consider a joint Type-II hybrid censoring model for the analysis of exponential competing failure data. Based on the maximum likelihood theory, we compute the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) of parameters and then obtain the condition ensuring MLEs existence for every unknown parameter. Then we derive the conditional exact distributions and corresponding moment properties for parameters by the moment generating function (MGF). A Monte-Carlo simulation is conducted to compare the performances of different ways. And finally, we conduct a numerical example to illustrate the proposed method.