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25 August 2020, Volume 31 Issue 4
Electronics Technology
Multiple model efficient particle filter based track-before-detect for maneuvering weak targets
Zhichao BAO, Qiuxi JIANG, Fangzheng LIU
2020, 31(4):  647-656.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000040
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It is a tough problem to jointly detect and track a weak target, and it becomes even more challenging when the target is maneuvering. The above problem is formulated by using the Bayesian theory and a multiple model (MM) based filter is proposed. The filter presented uses the MM method to accommodate the multiple motions that a maneuvering target may travel under by adding a random variable representing the motion model to the target state. To strengthen the efficiency performance of the filter, the target existence variable is separated from the target state and the existence probability is calculated in a more efficient way. To examine the performance of the MM based approach, a typical track-before-detect (TBD) scenario with a maneuvering target is used for simulations. The simulation results indicate that the MM based filter proposed has a good performance in joint detecting and tracking of a weak and maneuvering target, and it is more efficient than the general MM method.

Joint synchronization estimation based on genetic algorithm for OFDM/OQAM systems
Yongjin LIU, Xihong CHEN, Yu ZHAO
2020, 31(4):  657-665.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000041
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710051, China Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of synchronization for offset quadrature amplitude modulation based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM/OQAM) systems based on the genetic algorithm. In order to increase the spectrum efficiency, an improved preamble structure without guard symbols is derived at first. On this basis, instead of deriving the log likelihood function of power spectral density, joint estimation of the symbol timing offset and carrier frequency offset based on the preamble proposed is formulated into a bivariate optimization problem. After that, an improved genetic algorithm is used to find its global optimum solution. Conclusions can be drawn from simulation results that the proposed method has advantages in the joint estimation of synchronization.

Direct solution for fixed source location using well-posed TDOA and FDOA measurements
Congfeng LIU, Jinwei YUN, Juan SU
2020, 31(4):  666-673.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000042
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Based on the time differences of arrival (TDOA) and frequency differences of arrival (FDOA) measurements of the given planar stationary radiation source, the joint TDOA/FDOA location algorithm which solves the location of the target directly is proposed. Compared with weighted least squares (WLS) methods, the proposed algorithm is also suitable for well-posed conditions, and gets rid of the dependence on the constraints of Earth's surface. First of all, the solution formulas are expressed by the radial range. Then substitute it into the equation of the radial range to figure out the radial range between the target and the reference station. Finally use the solution expression of the target location to estimate the location of the target accurately. The proposed algorithm solves the problem that WLS methods have a large positioning error when the number of observation stations is not over-determined. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, including effectively increasing the positioning accuracy and reducing the number of observatories.

User space transformation in deep learning based recommendation
Caihua WU, Jianchao MA, Xiuwei ZHANG, Dang XIE
2020, 31(4):  674-684.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000043
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Deep learning based recommendation methods, such as the recurrent neural network based recommendation method (RNNRec) and the gated recurrent unit (GRU) based recommendation method (GRURec), are proposed to solve the problem of time heterogeneous feedback recommendation. These methods out-perform several state-of-the-art methods. However, in RNNRec and GRURec, action vectors and item vectors are shared among users. The different meanings of the same action for different users are not considered. Similarly, different user preference for the same item is also ignored. To address this problem, the models of RNNRec and GRURec are modified in this paper. In the proposed methods, action vectors and item vectors are transformed into the user space for each user firstly, and then the transformed vectors are fed into the original neural networks of RNNRec and GRURec. The transformed action vectors and item vectors represent the user specified meaning of actions and the preference for items, which makes the proposed method obtain more accurate recommendation results. The experimental results on two real-life datasets indicate that the proposed method outperforms RNNRec and GRURec as well as other state-of-the-art approaches in most cases.

BER-based relay selection strategy for cooperative communication
Peiyao YANG, Hai LI, Shujuan HOU, Liuqing YANG
2020, 31(4):  685-691.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000022
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In this paper, a bit error ratio (BER)-based relay selection strategy is investigated under opportunistic relay selection. The challenging problem is to design the relay selection rule so that the relay is able to measure the performance of the cooperative system at the destination exactly with low computation costs. This paper derives a closed-form expression of the end-to-end bit error rate firstly. Then, an approximate BER expression based on the relationship between the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the relay-to-destination link and the probability of error propagation is derived. Finally, a simplified relay selection formula is proposed. Simulation results prove that the proposed relay selection rule can reflect the BER of each relay properly as well.

Sensor scheduling for ground maneuvering target tracking in presence of detection blind zone
Gongguo XU, Ganlin SHAN, Xiusheng DUAN
2020, 31(4):  692-702.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000044
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Continuous and stable tracking of the ground maneuvering target is a challenging problem due to the complex terrain and high clutter. A collaborative tracking method of the multisensor network is presented for the ground maneuvering target in the presence of the detection blind zone (DBZ). First, the sensor scheduling process is modeled within the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) framework. To evaluate the target tracking accuracy of the sensor, the Fisher information is applied to constructing the reward function. The key of the proposed scheduling method is forecasting and early decisionmaking. Thus, an approximate method based on unscented sampling is presented to estimate the target state and the multi-step scheduling reward over the prediction time horizon. Moreover, the problem is converted into a nonlinear optimization problem, and a fast search algorithm is given to solve the sensor scheduling scheme quickly. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed nonmyopic scheduling method (Non-MSM) has a better target tracking accuracy compared with traditional methods.

Defence Electronics Technology
Exponential time differencing based efficient SC-PML for RCS simulation
Liqiang NIU, Yongjun XIE, Haolin JIANG, Peiyu WU
2020, 31(4):  703-711.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000045
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To efficiently simulate and calculate the radar cross section (RCS) related electromagnetic problems by employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, an efficient stretched coordinate perfectly matched layer (ESC-PML) based upon the exponential time differencing (ETD) method is proposed. The proposed implementation can not only reduce the number of auxiliary variables in the SC-PML regions but also maintain the ability of the original SC-PML in terms of the absorbing performance. Compared with the other existed algorithms, the ETDFDTD method shows the least memory consumption resulting in the computational efficiency. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed ESC-PML scheme is verified through the RCS relevant problems including the perfect E conductor (PEC) sphere model and the patch antenna model. The results indicate that the proposed scheme has the advantages of the ETD-FDTD method and ESC-PML scheme in terms of high computational efficiency and considerable computational accuracy.

An improved de-interleaving algorithm of radar pulses based on SOFM with self-adaptive network topology
Wen JIANG, Xiongjun FU, Jiayun CHANG, Rui QIN
2020, 31(4):  712-721.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000046
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As a core part of the electronic warfare (EW) system, de-interleaving is used to separate interleaved radar signals. As interleaved radar pulses become more complex and denser, intelligent classification of radar signals has become very important. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is an excellent artificial neural network, which has huge advantages in intelligent classification of complex data. However, the de-interleaving process based on SOFM is faced with the problems that the initialization of the map size relies on prior information and the network topology cannot be adaptively adjusted. In this paper, an SOFM with self-adaptive network topology (SANT-SOFM) algorithm is proposed to solve the above problems. The SANT-SOFM algorithm first proposes an adaptive proliferation algorithm to adjust the map size, so that the initialization of the map size is no longer dependent on prior information but is gradually adjusted with the input data. Then, structural optimization algorithms are proposed to gradually optimize the topology of the SOFM network in the iterative process, constructing an optimal SANT. Finally, the optimized SOFM network is used for de-interleaving radar signals. Simulation results show that SANT-SOFM could get excellent performance in complex EW environments and the probability of getting the optimal map size is over 95% in the absence of priori information.

An approach to wide-field imaging of linear rail ground-based SAR in high squint multi-angle mode
Yuan ZHANG, Qiming ZHANG, Yanping WANG, Yun LIN, Yang LI, Zechao BAI, Fang LI
2020, 31(4):  722-733.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000047
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Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has been successfully applied to the ground deformation monitoring. However, due to the short length of the GB-SAR platform, the scope of observation is largely limited. The practical applications drive us to make improvements on the conventional linear rail GB-SAR system in order to achieve larger field imaging. First, a turntable is utilized to support the rotational movement of the radar. Next, a series of high-squint scanning is performed with multiple squint angles. Further, the high squint modulation phase of the echo data is eliminated. Then, a new multi-angle imaging method is performed in the wave number domain to expand the field of view. Simulation and real experiments verify the effectiveness of this method.

Systems Engineering
Deep reinforcement learning and its application in autonomous fitting optimization for attack areas of UCAVs
Yue LI, Xiaohui QIU, Xiaodong LIU, Qunli XIA
2020, 31(4):  734-742.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000048
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The ever-changing battlefield environment requires the use of robust and adaptive technologies integrated into a reliable platform. Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) aim to integrate such advanced technologies while increasing the tactical capabilities of combat aircraft. As a research object, common UCAV uses the neural network fitting strategy to obtain values of attack areas. However, this simple strategy cannot cope with complex environmental changes and autonomously optimize decision-making problems. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) strategy based on deep reinforcement learning for the attack area fitting of UCAVs in the future battlefield. Simulation results show that the autonomy and environmental adaptability of UCAVs in the future battlefield will be improved based on the new DDPG algorithm and the training process converges quickly. We can obtain the optimal values of attack areas in real time during the whole flight with the well-trained deep network.

A nonlinear service composition method based on the Skyline operator
2020, 31(4):  743-750.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000049
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The concept of service composition can provide the complex functionality for users. As the widespread application of cloud computing, the number of services grows exponentially. It becomes more difficult to find out the optimal service composition solution quickly. This paper proposes a nonlinear service composition method based on the Skyline operator. The Skyline operator is to find a collection of data that cannot be dominated by others, which is used to prune the redundant services to reduce the search space. Then the service composition problem is formulated as a nonlinear integer programming model by a mathematical programming language (AMPL), and solved by the existing nonlinear solvers Bonmin. The experiments show that the proposed method can effectively improve the efficiency of service composition, while ensuring the quality of solution.

Parallel discrete lion swarm optimization algorithm for solving traveling salesman problem
Daoqing ZHANG, Mingyan JIANG
2020, 31(4):  751-760.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000050
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As a typical representative of the NP-complete problem, the traveling salesman problem (TSP) is widely utilized in computer networks, logistics distribution, and other fields. In this paper, a discrete lion swarm optimization (DLSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the TSP. Firstly, we introduce discrete coding and order crossover operators in DLSO. Secondly, we use the complete 2-opt (C2-opt) algorithm to enhance the local search ability. Then in order to enhance the efficiency of the algorithm, a parallel discrete lion swarm optimization (PDLSO) algorithm is proposed. The PDLSO has multiple populations, and each sub-population independently runs the DLSO algorithm in parallel. We use the ring topology to transfer information between sub-populations. Experiments on some benchmarks TSP problems show that the DLSO algorithm has a better accuracy than other algorithms, and the PDLSO algorithm can effectively shorten the running time.

Fuzzy modeling of multirate sampled nonlinear systems based on multi-model method
Hongwei WANG, Penglong FENG
2020, 31(4):  761-769.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000051
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Based on the multi-model principle, the fuzzy identification for nonlinear systems with multirate sampled data is studied. Firstly, the nonlinear system with multirate sampled data can be shown as the nonlinear weighted combination of some linear models at multiple local working points. On this basis, the fuzzy model of the multirate sampled nonlinear system is built. The premise structure of the fuzzy model is confirmed by using fuzzy competitive learning, and the conclusion parameters of the fuzzy model are estimated by the random gradient descent algorithm. The convergence of the proposed identification algorithm is given by using the martingale theorem and lemmas. The fuzzy model of the PH neutralization process of acid-base titration for hair quality detection is constructed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

A multivariate grey incidence model for different scale data based on spatial pyramid pooling
2020, 31(4):  770-779.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000052
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In order to solve the problem that existing multivariate grey incidence models cannot be applied to time series on different scales, a new model is proposed based on spatial pyramid pooling. Firstly, local features of multivariate time series on different scales are pooled and aggregated by spatial pyramid pooling to construct $n$ levels feature pooling matrices on the same scale. Secondly, Deng's multivariate grey incidence model is introduced to measure the degree of incidence between feature pooling matrices at each level. Thirdly, grey incidence degrees at each level are integrated into a global incidence degree. Finally, the performance of the proposed model is verified on two data sets compared with a variety of algorithms. The results illustrate that the proposed model is more effective and efficient than other similarity measure algorithms.

Control Theory and Application
Adaptive back-stepping control on container ships for path following
Yang ZHAO, Lili DONG
2020, 31(4):  780-791.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000053
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A feedback-dominance based adaptive back-stepping (FDBAB) controller is designed to drive a container ship to follow a predefined path. In reality, current, wave and wind act on the ship and produce unwanted disturbances to the ship control system. The FDBAB controller has to compensate for such disturbances and steer the ship to track the predefined (or desired) path. The difference between the actual and the desired path along which the ship is to sail is defined as the tracking error. The FDBAB controller is built on the tracking error model which is developed based on Serret-Frenet frame transformation (SFFT). In additional to being affected by external disturbances, the ship has more outputs than inputs (under-actuated), and is inherently nonlinear. The back-stepping controller in FDBAB is used to compensate the nonlinearity. The adaptive algorithms in FDBAB is employed to approximate disturbances. Lyapunov's direct method is used to prove the stability of the control system. The FDBAB controlled system is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the controller in terms of successful path tracking and disturbance rejection.

Multiconstraint adaptive three-dimensional guidance law using convex optimization
Shengnan FU, Xiaodong LIU, Wenjie ZHANG, Qunli XIA
2020, 31(4):  791-803.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000054
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The traditional guidance law only guarantees the accuracy of attacking a target. However, the look angle and acceleration constraints are indispensable in applications. A new adaptive three-dimensional proportional navigation (PN) guidance law is proposed based on convex optimization. Decomposition of the three-dimensional space is carried out to establish three-dimensional kinematic engagements. The constraints and the performance index are disposed by using the convex optimization method. PN guidance gains can be obtained by solving the optimization problem. This solution is more rapid and programmatic than the traditional method and provides a foundation for future online guidance methods, which is of great value for engineering applications.

Underwater square-root cubature attitude estimator by use of quaternion-vector switching and geomagnetic field tensor
Yu HUANG, Lihua WU, Qiang YU
2020, 31(4):  804-814.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000055
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This paper presents a kind of attitude estimation algorithm based on quaternion-vector switching and square-root cubature Kalman filter for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The filter formulation is based on geomagnetic field tensor measurement dependent on the attitude and a gyro-based model for attitude propagation. In this algorithm, switching between the quaternion and the three-component vector is done by a couple of the mathematical transformations. Quaternion is chosen as the state variable of attitude in the kinematics equation to time update, while the mean value and covariance of the quaternion are computed by the three-component vector to avoid the normalization constraint of quaternion. The square-root forms enjoy a continuous and improved numerical stability because all the resulting covariance matrices are guaranteed to stay positively semi-definite. The entire square-root cubature attitude estimation algorithm with quaternion-vector switching for the nonlinear equality constraint of quaternion is given. The numerical simulation of simultaneous swing motions in the three directions is performed to compare with the three kinds of filters and the results indicate that the proposed filter provides lower attitude estimation errors than the other two kinds of filters and a good convergence rate.

Extended state observer based smooth switching control for tilt-rotor aircraft
Yiru ZOU, Chunsheng LIU, Ke LU
2020, 31(4):  815-825.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000025
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A tilt-rotor aircraft has three flight modes: helicopter mode, airplane mode and conversion mode. Unlike the traditional aircraft, the tilt-rotor aircraft, which combines the characteristics of helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft, is a complex multi-body system with the violent variation of the aerodynamic parameters. For these characteristics, a new smooth switching control scheme is provided for the tilt-rotor aircraft. First, the reference commands for airspeed and nacelle angles are calculated by analyzing the conversion corridor and the conversion path. Subsequently, based on the finite-time switching theorem, an average dwell time condition is designed to guarantee the stability in the switching process. Besides, considering the state vibrations and bumps may appear in switching points, the fuzzy weighted logic is employed to improve the system transient performance. For disturbance rejection, three extended state observers are designed separately to estimate the disturbances in the switched systems. Compared with the traditional auto disturbance rejection control and proportion integration differentiation control, this method overcomes the conservatism of wasting the whole model information. The control performances of robustness and smoothness are verified with simulation, which shows that the new smooth switching control scheme is more targeted and superior than the traditional design method.

Control allocation for a class of morphing aircraft with integer constraints based on Lévy flight
Yao LU, You SUN, Xiaodong LIU, Bo GAO
2020, 31(4):  826-840.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000056
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Aiming at tracking control of a class of innovative control effector (ICE) aircraft with distributed arrays of actuators, this paper proposes a control allocation scheme based on the Lévy flight. Different from the conventional aircraft control allocation problem, the particular characteristic of actuators makes the actuator control command totally subject to integer constraints. In order to tackle this problem, first, the control allocation problem is described as an integer programming problem with two desired objectives. Then considering the requirement of real-time, a metaheuristic algorithm based on the Lévy flight is introduced to tackling this problem. In order to improve the searching efficiency, several targeted and heuristic strategies including variable step length and inherited population initialization according to feedback and so on are designed. Moreover, to prevent the incertitude of the metaheuristic algorithm and ensure the flight stability, a guaranteed control strategy is designed. Finally, a time-varying simulation model is introduced to verifying the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The contrastive simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme achieves superior tracking performance with appropriate actuator dynamics and computational time, and the improvements for efficiency are active and the parameter settings are reasonable.

Condition-based maintenance optimization for continuously monitored degrading systems under imperfect maintenance actions
Chuang CHEN, Ningyun LU, Bin JIANG, Yin XING
2020, 31(4):  841-851.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000057
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Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is receiving increasing attention in various engineering systems because of its effectiveness. This paper formulates a new CBM optimization problem for continuously monitored degrading systems considering imperfect maintenance actions. In terms of maintenance actions, in practice, they scarcely restore the system to an as-good-as new state due to residual damage. According to up-to-data researches, imperfect maintenance actions are likely to speed up the degradation process. Regarding the developed CBM optimization strategy, it can balance the maintenance cost and the availability by the searching the optimal preventive maintenance threshold. The maximum number of maintenance is also considered, which is regarded as an availability constraint in the CBM optimization problem. A numerical example is introduced, and experimental results can demonstrate the novelty, feasibility and flexibility of the proposed CBM optimization strategy.

Dependence Rayleigh competing risks model with generalized censored data
Liang WANG, Jin'ge MA, Yimin SHI
2020, 31(4):  852-858.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000058
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The inference for the dependent competing risks model is studied and the dependent structure of failure causes is modeled by a Marshall-Olkin bivariate Rayleigh distribution. Under generalized progressive hybrid censoring (GPHC), maximum likelihood estimates are established and the confidence intervals are constructed based on the asymptotic theory. Bayesian estimates and the highest posterior density credible intervals are obtained by using Gibbs sampling. Simulation and a real life electrical appliances data set are used for practical illustration.