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30 October 2020, Volume 31 Issue 5
Electronics Technology
Multi-target tracking algorithm based on PHD filter against multi-range-false-target jamming
Chen TIAN, Yang PEI, Peng HOU, Qian ZHAO
2020, 31(5):  859-870.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000066
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Multi-range-false-target (MRFT) jamming is particularly challenging for tracking radar due to the dense clutter and the repeated multiple false targets. The conventional association-based multi-target tracking (MTT) methods suffer from high computational complexity and limited usage in the presence of MRFT jamming. In order to solve the above problems, an efficient and adaptable probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter is proposed. Based on the gating strategy, the obtained measurements are firstly classified into the generalized newborn target and the existing target measurements. The two categories of measurements are independently used in the decomposed form of the PHD filter. Meanwhile, an amplitude feature is used to suppress the dense clutter. In addition, an MRFT jamming suppression algorithm is introduced to the filter. Target amplitude information and phase quantization information are jointly used to deal with MRFT jamming and the clutter by modifying the particle weights of the generalized newborn targets. Simulations demonstrate the proposed algorithm can obtain superior correct discrimination rate of MRFT, and high-accuracy tracking performance with high computational efficiency in the presence of MRFT jamming in the dense clutter.

Design, analysis and optimization of random access inter-satellite ranging system
Xiaoyi XU, Chunhui WANG, Zhonghe JIN
2020, 31(5):  871-883.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000067
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In this paper, a random access inter-satellite ranging (RAISR) system is designed. The ranging accuracy is optimized by an algorithm to greatly improve the ranging accuracy. This paper verifies the feasibility of the RAISR system through a series of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, hardware system design and testing. The research work brings the solution to the design and accuracy optimization problem of the RAISR system, which eliminates the main error caused by the satellite dynamic characteristics and frequency source drift of the RAISR system. The accuracy of the measurement system has been significantly improved.

Parity recognition of blade number and manoeuvre intention classification algorithm of rotor target based on micro-Doppler features using CNN
Wantian WANG, Ziyue TANG, Yichang CHEN, Yongjian SUN
2020, 31(5):  884-889.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000062
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This paper proposes a parity recognition of blade number and manoeuvre intention classification algorithm of rotor target based on the convolutional neural network (CNN) using micro Doppler features. Firstly, the time-frequency spectrograms are acquired from the radar echo by the short-time Fourier transform. Secondly, based on the obtained spectrograms, a seven-layer CNN architecture is built to recognize the blade-number parity and classify the manoeuvre intention of the rotor target. The constructed architecture contains a leaky rectified linear unit and a dropout layer to accelerate the convergence of the architecture and avoid over-fitting. Finally, the spectrograms of the datasets are divided into three different ratios, i.e., 20%, 33% and 50%, and the cross validation is used to verify the effectiveness of the constructed CNN architecture. Simulation results show that, on the one hand, as the ratio of training data increases, the recognition accuracy of parity and manoeuvre intention is improved at the same signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); on the other hand, the proposed algorithm also has a strong robustness: the accuracy can still reach 90.72% with an SNR of – 6 dB.

Uplink NOMA signal transmission with convolutional neural networks approach
Chuan LIN, Qing CHANG, Xianxu LI
2020, 31(5):  890-898.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000068
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Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), featuring high spectrum efficiency, massive connectivity and low latency, holds immense potential to be a novel multi-access technique in fifthgeneration (5G) communication. Successive interference cancellation (SIC) is proved to be an effective method to detect the NOMA signal by ordering the power of received signals and then decoding them. However, the error accumulation effect referred to as error propagation is an inevitable problem. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural networks (CNNs) approach to restore the desired signal impaired by the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel. Especially in the uplink NOMA scenario, the proposed method can decode multiple users' information in a cluster instantaneously without any traditional communication signal processing steps. Simulation experiments are conducted in the Rayleigh channel and the results demonstrate that the error performance of the proposed learning system outperforms that of the classic SIC detection. Consequently, deep learning has disruptive potential to replace the conventional signal detection method.

A transceiver frequency conversion module based on 3D micropackaging technology
Boyuan LIU, Qingping WANG, Weiwei WU, Naichang YUAN
2020, 31(5):  899-907.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000059
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The idea of Ku-band transceiver frequency conversion module design based on 3D micropackaging technology is proposed. By using the double frequency conversion technology, the dual transceiver circuit from Ku-band to L-band is realized by combining with the local oscillator and the power control circuit to complete functions such as amplification, filtering and gain. In order to achieve the performance optimization and a high level of integration of the Ku-band monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) operating chip, the 3D vertical interconnection micro-assembly technology is used. By stacking solder balls on the printed circuit board (PCB), the technology decreases the volume of the original transceiver to a miniaturized module. The module has a good electromagnetic compatibility through special structure designs. This module has the characteristics of miniaturization, low power consumption and high density, which is suitable for popularization in practical application.

Renormalization: single-photon processes of two-level system in free space
Chong WANG, Yong ZHU, Liangsheng LI, Hongcheng YIN
2020, 31(5):  908-915.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000069
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The investigation on quantum radar requires accurate computation of the state vectors of the single-photon processes of the two-level system in free space. However, the traditional Weisskopf-Wigner (W-W) theory fails to deal with those processes other than spontaneous emission. To solve this problem, we provide a new method based on the renormalization theory. We evaluate the renormalized time-ordered Green functions associated with the single-photon processes, and relate them to the corresponding state vectors. It is found that the ultraviolet divergences generated by the Lamb shift and higher-order interactions can be systematically subtracted in the state vectors. The discussions on spontaneous emission and single-photon absorption are then presented to illustrate the proposed method. For spontaneous emission, we obtain the same results of the W-W theory. For single-photon absorption where W-W theory fails, we find that the two-level electric dipole first gets excited rapidly and then decays exponentially, and that the efficiency of the single-photon absorption declines as the bandwidth of the incident photon becomes narrow. The proposed method can improve the investigation on quantum radar.

Defence Electronics Technology
Adaptive resource management for multi-target tracking in co-located MIMO radar based on time-space joint allocation
Yang SU, Ting CHENG, Zishu HE, Xi LI, Yanxi LU
2020, 31(5):  916-927.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000061
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Compared with the traditional phased array radar, the co-located multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is able to transmit orthogonal waveforms to form different illuminating modes, providing a larger freedom degree in radar resource mana-gement. In order to implement the effective resource mana-gement for the co-located MIMO radar in multi-target tracking, this paper proposes a resource management optimization model, where the system resource consumption and the tracking accuracy requirements are considered comprehensively. An adaptive resource management algorithm for the co-located MIMO radar is obtained based on the proposed model, where the sub-array number, sampling period, transmitting energy, beam direction and working mode are adaptively controlled to realize the time-space resource joint allocation. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the co-located MIMO radar using the proposed algorithm can satisfy the predetermined tracking accuracy requirements with less comprehensive cost compared with the phased array radar.

ISAR cross-range scaling based on the MUSIC technique
Qiuchen LIU, Yong WANG, Qingxiang ZHANG
2020, 31(5):  928-938.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000070
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Cross-range scaling plays an important role in the inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. Many of the published cross-range scaling algorithms are based on the fast Fourier transformation (FFT). However, the FFT technique is resolution limited, so that the FFT-based algorithms will fail in the rotation velocity (RV) estimation of the slow rotation target. In this paper, we propose an accurate cross-range scaling algorithm based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method. We first select some range bins with the mono-component linear frequency mo-dulated (LFM) signal model. Then, we dechirp the signal of each selected range bin into the form of sinusoidal signal, and utilize the super-resolution MUSIC technique to accurately estimate the frequency. After processing all the range bins, a linear relationship related to the RV can be obtained. Eventually, the ISAR image can be scaled. The proposal can precisely estimate the small RV of the slow rotation target with low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposal can also be used in the case of cross-range scaling for the sparse aperture data. Experimental results with the simulated and raw data validate the superiority of the novel method.

Moving target localization for multistatic passive radar using delay, Doppler and Doppler rate measurements
Yongsheng ZHAO, Dexiu HU, Yongjun ZHAO, Zhixin LIU
2020, 31(5):  939-949.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000071
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Time delay and Doppler shift between the echo signal and the reference signal are two most commonly used measurements in target localization for the passive radar. Doppler rate, which can be obtained from the extended cross ambiguity function, offers an opportunity to further enhance the localization accuracy. This paper considers using the measurement Doppler rate in addition to measurements of time delay and Doppler shift to locate a moving target. A closed-form solution is developed to accurately and efficiently estimate the target position and velocity. The proposed solution establishes a pseudolinear set of equations by introducing some additional variables, imposes weighted least squares formulation to yield a rough estimate, and utilizes the function relation among the target location parameters and additional variables to improve the estimation accuracy. Theoretical covariance and Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) are derived and compared, analytically indicating that the proposed solution attains the CRLB. Numerical simulations corroborate this analysis and demonstrate that the proposed solution outperforms existing methods.

Lira-YOLO: a lightweight model for ship detection in radar images
Long ZHOU, SuyuanX WEI, Zhongma CUI, Jiaqi FANG, Xiaoting YANG, Wei DING
2020, 31(5):  950-956.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000063
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For the detection of marine ship objects in radar images, large-scale networks based on deep learning are difficult to be deployed on existing radar-equipped devices. This paper proposes a lightweight convolutional neural network, LiraNet, which combines the idea of dense connections, residual connections and group convolution, including stem blocks and extractor modules. The designed stem block uses a series of small convolutions to extract the input image features, and the extractor network adopts the designed two-way dense connection module, which further reduces the network operation complexity. Mounting LiraNet on the object detection framework Darknet, this paper proposes Lira-you only look once (Lira-YOLO), a lightweight model for ship detection in radar images, which can easily be deployed on the mobile devices. Lira-YOLO's prediction module uses a two-layer YOLO prediction layer and adds a residual module for better feature delivery. At the same time, in order to fully verify the performance of the model, mini-RD, a lightweight distance Doppler domain radar images dataset, is constructed. Experiments show that the network complexity of Lira-YOLO is low, being only 2.980 Bflops, and the parameter quantity is smaller, which is only 4.3 MB. The mean average precision (mAP) indicators on the mini-RD and SAR ship detection dataset (SSDD) reach 83.21{%} and 85.46{%}, respectively, which is comparable to the tiny-YOLOv3. Lira-YOLO has achieved a good detection accuracy with less memory and computational cost.

Systems Engineering
A scenario construction and similarity measurement method for navy combat search and rescue
Qingsong ZHAO, Junyi DING, Yu GUO, Peng LIU, Kewei YANG
2020, 31(5):  957-968.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000064
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Navy combat search and rescue (NCSAR) is an important component of the modern maritime warfare and the scenario of NCSAR is the basis for decision makers to rely on. According to the core elements in the NCSAR process, the NCSAR scenario structure is constructed from seven perspectives based on the multi-view architecture framework. According to the NCSAR scenarios evolution over time, the NCSAR scenario sequence is analyzed and modeled based on the concept lattice method. Then, the incremental construction algorithm of the NCSAR scenario sequence lattice is given. On this basis, the similarity measurement index of NCSAR scenarios is defined, and the similarity measurement model of NCSAR scenarios is proposed. Finally, the rationality of the method is verified by an example analysis. The NCSAR scenario and similarity measurement method proposed can provide scientific guidance for rapid making, dynamic adjustment and implementation of the NCSAR program, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of NCSAR.

A super-network equilibrium optimization method for operation architecture with fuzzy demands
Qinghua XING, Jiale GAO
2020, 31(5):  969-982.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000072
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From the view of information flow, a super-network equilibrium optimization model is proposed to compute the solution of the operation architecture which is made up of a perceptive level, a command level and a firepower level. Firstly, the optimized conditions of the perceptive level, command level and firepower level are analyzed respectively based on the demand of information relation, and then the information supply-and-demand equilibrium model of the operation architecture super-network is established. Secondly, a variational inequality transformation (VIT) model for equilibrium optimization of the operation architecture is given. Thirdly, the contraction projection algorithm for solving the operation architecture super-network equilibrium optimization model with fuzzy demands is designed. Finally, numerical examples are given to prove the validity and rationality of the proposed method, and the influence of fuzzy demands on the super-network equilibrium solution of operation architecture is discussed.

A coevolutionary framework of business-IT alignment via the lens of enterprise architecture
Menglong LIN, Shuanghui YI, Mengmeng ZHANG, Tao CHEN, Honghui CHEN, Xiaoxue ZHANG
2020, 31(5):  983-995.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000073
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Due to the turbulent external business environment, the complexity of internal relations of the organization and the emergence of subversive IT roles, the business-IT alignment (BITA) has become increasingly difficult. The unsuccessful realization of BITA will lead to the waste of organizational resources, the reduction of return on investment and eventually the loss of competitive advantage. In recent years, coevolution has received widespread attention due to its ability to describe the dynamic relationship between IT and business. Multiple principles such as quickening learning action loops and adopt suitable organizing principles for achieving business and IT coevolution (BITC) are obtained. However, the continuous BITC is still hard to be achieved because of the lack of complete BITC management. This paper focuses on the management process of the BITC and how to perform it gradually. A coevolution framework combines the enterprise architecture (EA) approach with the coevolution analysis is proposed, which contains the design of EA, the sensing and governance of the misalignment and the procedure of the EA misalignment prevention. The steps for the governance and prevention of misalignment are discussed in particular. Through comparison with the principles, characteristics and methods of coevolution in the literature, the proposed framework is evaluated. The results show that the proposed framework is effective for BITC implementation.

Optimal observation configuration of UAVs based on angle and range measurements and cooperative target tracking in three-dimensional space
Haoran SHI, Faxing LU, Hangyu WANG, Junfei XU
2020, 31(5):  996-1008.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000074
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This article investigates the optimal observation configuration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on angle and range measurements, and generalizes predecessors' researches in two dimensions into three dimensions. The relative geometry of the UAVs-target will significantly affect the state estimation performance of the target, the cost function based on the Fisher information matrix (FIM) is used to derive the FIM determinant of UAVs' observation in three-dimensional space, and the optimal observation geometric configuration that maximizes the determinant of the FIM is obtained. It is shown that the optimal observation configuration of the UAVs-target is usually not unique, and the optimal observation configuration is proved for two UAVs and three UAVs in three-dimension. The long-range over-the-horizon target tracking is simulated and analyzed based on the analysis of optimal observation configuration for two UAVs. The simulation results show that the theoretical analysis and control algorithm can effectively improve the positioning accuracy of the target. It can provide a helpful reference for the design of over-the-horizon target localization based on UAVs.

Fractional derivative multivariable grey model for nonstationary sequence and its application
Yuxiao KANG, Shuhua MAO, Yonghong ZHANG, Huimin ZHU
2020, 31(5):  1009-1018.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000075
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Most of the existing multivariable grey models are based on the 1-order derivative and 1-order accumulation, which makes the parameters unable to be adjusted according to the data characteristics of the actual problems. The results about fractional derivative multivariable grey models are very few at present. In this paper, a multivariable Caputo fractional derivative grey model with convolution integral CFGMC$ \mathit{\boldsymbol{(q, N)}} $ is proposed. First, the Caputo fractional difference is used to discretize the model, and the least square method is used to solve the parameters. The orders of accumulations and differential equations are determined by using particle swarm optimization (PSO). Then, the analytical solution of the model is obtained by using the Laplace transform, and the convergence and divergence of series in analytical solutions are also discussed. Finally, the CFGMC$ \mathit{\boldsymbol{(q, N)}} $ model is used to predict the municipal solid waste (MSW). Compared with other competition models, the model has the best prediction effect. This study enriches the model form of the multivariable grey model, expands the scope of application, and provides a new idea for the development of fractional derivative grey model.

Control Theory and Application
Finite-time control of formation system for multiple flight vehicles subject to actuator saturation
Enjiao ZHAO, Zenan ZHONG, Xin ZHENG
2020, 31(5):  1019-1030.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000076
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This paper investigates the problem of formation tracking control for multiple flight vehicle (MFV) system considering actuator saturation constraints. First, the formation tracking control model is established. Then, the problem of formation control of the MFV system is converted to the convergence of a dynamical system, which is obtained by using the differential geometry theory. A class of saturation functions is introduced, and on this basis a second-order finite-time formation control protocol is developed. With the help of the homogeneous theory and Lasalle's invariance principle, it is theoretically proved that the designed formation protocol could complete the formation task in finite time, and the control inputs are shown to remain within their available actuating limits. Finally, simulations are performed to verify the effectiveness of the scheme.

Typical adaptive neural control for hypersonic vehicle based on higher-order filters
Hewei ZHAO, Rui LI
2020, 31(5):  1031-1040.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000077
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A typical adaptive neural control methodology is used for the rigid body model of the hypersonic vehicle. The rigid body model is divided into the altitude subsystem and the velocity subsystem. The proportional integral differential (PID) controller is introduced to control the velocity track. The backstepping design is applied for constructing the controllers for the altitude subsystem. To avoid the explosion of differentiation from backstepping, the higher-order filter dynamic is used for replacing the virtual controller in the backstepping design steps. In the design procedure, the radial basis function (RBF) neural network is investigated to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions in the system dynamic of the hypersonic vehicle. The simulations show the effectiveness of the design method.

Sliding-mode control for a rolling-missile with input constraints
Siyu HUA, Xugang WANG, Yin ZHU
2020, 31(5):  1041-1050.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000078
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This paper investigates the overload stabilization problem of the rolling-missile subject to parameters uncertainty and actuator saturation. In order to solve this problem, a sliding-mode control (SMC) scheme is technically employed by using the backstepping approach to make the dynamic system stable. In addition, SMC with the tanh-type switching function plays an important role in reducing intrinsic vibration. Furthermore, an auxiliary system (AS) is developed to compensate for nonlinear terms arising from input saturation. Finally, the simulation results provide a solution to demonstrate that the suggested SMC and the AS methodology have advantages of strong tracking capability, anti-interference ability and anti-saturation performance.

Impedance control of multi-arm space robot for the capture of non-cooperative targets
Dongming GE, Guanghui SUN, Yuanjie ZOU, Jixin SHI
2020, 31(5):  1051-1061.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000079
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Robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in future space activities. The robotic on-orbital service, whose key is the capturing technology, becomes a research hot spot in recent years. This paper studies the dynamics modeling and impedance control of a multi-arm free-flying space robotic system capturing a non-cooperative target. Firstly, a control-oriented dynamics model is essential in control algorithm design and code realization. Unlike a numerical algorithm, an analytical approach is suggested. Using a general and a quasi-coordinate Lagrangian formulation, the kinematics and dynamics equations are derived. Then, an impedance control algorithm is developed which allows coordinated control of the multiple manipulators to capture a target. Through enforcing a reference impedance, end-effectors behave like a mass-damper-spring system fixed in inertial space in reaction to any contact force between the capture hands and the target. Meanwhile, the position and the attitude of the base are maintained stably by using gas jet thrusters to work against the manipulators' reaction. Finally, a simulation by using a space robot with two manipulators and a free-floating non-cooperative target is illustrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

A fast computational method for the landing footprints of space-to-ground vehicles
Qingguo LIU, Xinxue LIU, Jian WU, Yaxiong LI
2020, 31(5):  1062-1076.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000080
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Fast computation of the landing footprint of a space-toground vehicle is a basic requirement for the deployment of parking orbits, as well as for enabling decision makers to develop real-time programs of transfer trajectories. In order to address the usually slow computational time for the determination of the landing footprint of a space-to-ground vehicle under finite thrust, this work proposes a method that uses polynomial equations to describe the boundaries of the landing footprint and uses back propagation (BP) neural networks to quickly determine the landing footprint of the space-to-ground vehicle. First, given orbital parameters and a manoeuvre moment, the solution model of the landing footprint of a space-to-ground vehicle under finite thrust is established. Second, given arbitrary orbital parameters and an arbitrary manoeuvre moment, a fast computational model for the landing footprint of a space-to-ground vehicle based on BP neural networks is provided. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that under the premise of ensuring accuracy, the proposed method can quickly determine the landing footprint of a space-to-ground vehicle with arbitrary orbital parameters and arbitrary manoeuvre moments. The proposed fast computational method for determining a landing footprint lays a foundation for the parking-orbit configuration and supports the design of real-time transfer trajectories.

Zonotope parameter identification for piecewise affine systems
Jianhong WANG
2020, 31(5):  1077-1084.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2020.000060
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The problem of how to identify the piecewise affine system is studied in this paper, where this considered piecewise affine system is a special nonlinear system. The reason why it is not easy to identify this piecewise affine system is that each separated region and each unknown parameter vector are all needed to be determined simultaneously. Then, firstly, in order to achieve the identification goal, a multi-class classification process is proposed to determine each separated region. As the proposed multi-class classification process is the same with the classical data clustering strategy, the multi-class classification process can combine the first order algorithm of convex optimization, while achieving the goal of the classification process. Secondly, a zonotope parameter identification algorithm is used to construct a set, which contains the unknown parameter vector. In this zonotope parameter identification algorithm, the strict probabilistic description about the external noise is relaxed, and each unknown parameter vector is also identified. Furthermore, this constructed set is consistent with the measured output and the given bound corresponding to the noise. Thirdly, a sufficient condition about guaranteeing our derived zonotope not growing unbounded with iterations is formulated as an explicit linear matrix inequality. Finally, the effectiveness of this zonotope parameter identification algorithm is proven through a simulation example.