Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics ›› 2021, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 163-177.doi: 10.23919/JSEE.2021.000015

• SYSTEMS ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Reactive scheduling of multiple EOSs under cloud uncertainties: model and algorithms

Jianjiang WANG1(), Xuejun HU2,*(), Chuan HE3   

  1. 1 College of Systems Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
    2 Business School, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
    3 Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology, Beijing 100094, China
  • Received:2020-03-18 Online:2021-02-25 Published:2021-02-25
  • Contact: Xuejun HU;
  • About author:|WANG Jianjiang was born in 1986. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in military operations research from National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China, in 2009 and 2015, respectively. He is currently a lecturer with National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China. His research interests are combinational optimization, satellite scheduling, and project scheduling. E-mail:||HU Xuejun was born in 1989. She received her B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in management science and engineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Changsha, China, in 2011 and 2016, respectively. She is currently an associate professor in the Business School, Hunan University, Changsha, China. Her research interests are satellite scheduling, project scheduling, and project control. E-mail:||HE Chuan was born in 1985. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in military operations research from PLA Army Academy of Artillery and Air Defense in 2007 and 2010, respectively. He received his Ph.D. degree in military operations research from National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China, in 2013. He is currently a research assistant in Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology. His research interests are satellite application and algorithm design. E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71801218; 71701067; 72071075), the Research Project of National University of Defense Technology (ZK18-03-16), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (2020JJ4672; 2019JJ50039)


Most earth observation satellites (EOSs) are low-orbit satellites equipped with optical sensors that cannot see through clouds. Hence, cloud coverage, high dynamics, and cloud uncertainties are important issues in the scheduling of EOSs. The proactive-reactive scheduling framework has been proven to be effective and efficient for the uncertain scheduling problem and has been extensively employed. Numerous studies have been conducted on methods for the proactive scheduling of EOSs, including expectation, chance-constrained, and robust optimization models and the relevant solution algorithms. This study focuses on the reactive scheduling of EOSs under cloud uncertainties. First, using an example, we describe the reactive scheduling problem in detail, clarifying its significance and key issues. Considering the two key objectives of observation profits and scheduling stability, we construct a multi-objective optimization mathematical model. Then, we obtain the possible disruptions of EOS scheduling during execution under cloud uncertainties, adopting an event-driven policy for the reactive scheduling. For the different disruptions, different reactive scheduling algorithms are designed. Finally, numerous simulation experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed reactive scheduling algorithms. The experimental results show that the reactive scheduling algorithms can both improve observation profits and reduce system perturbations.

Key words: earth observation satellite (EOS), uncertainty of clouds, reactive scheduling, multi-objective optimization, event-driven, heuristic