Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics ›› 2022, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (1): 156-169.doi: 10.23919/JSEE.2022.000016

• SYSTEMS ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

An ε -domination based two-archive 2 algorithm for many-objective optimization

Tianwei WU1,2(), Siguang AN1,2,*(), Jianqiang HAN1,2(), Nanying SHENTU1,2()   

  1. 1 College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
    2 Key Laboratory of Intelligent Manufacturing Quality Big Data Tracing and Analysis of Zhejiang Province, China jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
  • Received:2020-12-09 Accepted:2021-12-13 Online:2022-02-18 Published:2022-02-22
  • Contact: Siguang AN;;;
  • About author:
    WU Tianwei was born in 1996. He received his B.S. degree in engineering degree from Hefei Normal University, China in 2017. He is currently working toward his M.S. degree in control engineering at China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, China. His research interests include many-objective optimization problems and objective reduction optimization algorithms. E-mail:

    AN Siguang was born in 1981. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, in 2006 and 2012. From 2006 to 2014, she was a research assistant in China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, China. Since 2015, she has been an assistant professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, China Jiliang University. Her research interests include optimization algorithms, electromagnetic inverse problems, and the computational method on electromagnetic devices. E-mail:

    HAN Jianqiang was born in 1970. He received his Ph.D. degree in electron science and technology from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 2003. He was a post-doctoral fellow with the State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, from 2004 to 2005. Since 2006, he has been working as a professor with the College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China Jiliang University. His research interests are micromachined resonant accelerometers, resonant IR detectors, and thin-film thermal converter. E-mail:

    SHENTU Nanying was born in 1977. She received her B.S. and M.S. degrees from Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, in 1999 and 2003, respectively. She is currently pursuing her Ph.D. degree at National Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. She is a lecturer at China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang. Her research interests cover industrial field parameter measurement, design, fabrication and theoretical modeling of sensors, and geohazard monitoring. E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (52077203; LY19E070003) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Provincial Universities of Zhejiang (2021YW06)


The two-archive 2 algorithm (Two_Arch2) is a many-objective evolutionary algorithm for balancing the convergence, diversity, and complexity using diversity archive (DA) and convergence archive (CA). However, the individuals in DA are selected based on the traditional Pareto dominance which decreases the selection pressure in the high-dimensional problems. The traditional algorithm even cannot converge due to the weak selection pressure. Meanwhile, Two_Arch2 adopts DA as the output of the algorithm which is hard to maintain diversity and coverage of the final solutions synchronously and increase the complexity of the algorithm. To increase the evolutionary pressure of the algorithm and improve distribution and convergence of the final solutions, an ${\textit{ε}} $-domination based Two_Arch2 algorithm (${\textit{ε}} $-Two_Arch2) for many-objective problems (MaOPs) is proposed in this paper. In ${\textit{ε}} $-Two_Arch2, to decrease the computational complexity and speed up the convergence, a novel evolutionary framework with a fast update strategy is proposed; to increase the selection pressure, ${\textit{ε}} $-domination is assigned to update the individuals in DA; to guarantee the uniform distribution of the solution, a boundary protection strategy based on $ {\mathit{I}}_{\mathit{{\textit{ε}} }+} $ indicator is designated as two steps selection strategies to update individuals in CA. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, a series of benchmark functions with different numbers of objectives is solved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is competitive with the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms and the efficiency of the algorithm is significantly improved compared with Two_Arch2.

Key words: many-objective optimization, $\varepsilon $-domination, boundary protection strategy, two-archive algorithm