Current Issue

25 April 2018, Volume 29 Issue 2
Electronics Technology
Algorithm for source recovery in underdetermined blind source separation based on plane pursuit
Weihong FU, Juan WEI, Naian LIU, Jiehu CHEN
2018, 29(2):  223-228.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.01
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In order to achieve accurate recovery signals under the underdetermined circumstance in a comparatively short time, an algorithm based on plane pursuit (PP) is proposed. The proposed algorithm selects the atoms according to the correlation between received signals and hyper planes, which are composed by column vectors of the mixing matrix, and uses these atoms to recover source signals. Simulation results demonstrate that the PP algorithm has low complexity and higher accuracy as compared with basic pursuit (BP), orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), and adaptive sparsity matching pursuit (ASMP) algorithms.

Improved pruning algorithm for Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter
Yongfang NIE, Tao ZHANG
2018, 29(2):  229-235.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.02
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With the increment of the number of Gaussian components, the computation cost increases in the Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GM-PHD) filter. Based on the theory of Chen et al, we propose an improved pruning algorithm for the GM-PHD filter, which utilizes not only the Gaussian components' means and covariance, but their weights as a new criterion to improve the estimate accuracy of the conventional pruning algorithm for tracking very closely proximity targets. Moreover, it solves the end-less while-loop problem without the need of a second merging step. Simulation results show that this improved algorithm is easier to implement and more robust than the formal ones.

Weak GPS signal acquisition method based on DBZP
Jianing WANG, Baowang LIAN, Zhe XUE
2018, 29(2):  236-243.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.03
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Double block zero padding (DBZP) is a widely used but costly method for weak global positioning system (GPS) signal acquisition in software receivers. To improve the computational efficiency, this paper proposes an algorithm based on the differential DBZP algorithm and the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain filtering method. The proposed method involves using a differential correlator after the DBZP operation. Subsequently, DCT domain low pass filtering (LPF) and inverse DCT (IDCT) reconstruction are carried out to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the detection algorithm can effectively improve the SNR of the acquired signal and increase the probability of detection under the same false alarm probability.

Self-adapting radiation control method for RFS in tracking
Hongqiang LIU, Lei YU, Haiyan YANG, Zhongliang ZHOU
2018, 29(2):  244-255.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.04
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The aim of this paper is to achieve the radio frequency stealth (RFS) during the course of tracking by controlling the radiation energy and the interval of a radar. Firstly, we build the model of probability of interception with the once radiation during the course of tracking. Secondly, we establish the model of the cumulative probability of interception to describe the effect of RFS throughout the tracking process and obtain two solutions that are minimizing the probability of interception and the radiation times to reduce the cumulative probability of interception. Thirdly, we propose a self-adapting radiation energy control method (SARE) to minimize the probability of interception. Fourthly, we propose a self-adapting radiation interval control method (SARI) to minimize radiation times. Fifthly, combining SARE with SARI, we propose a SARE-SARI control method (SAEI) during the course of tracking. Finally, we compare SAEI with two others by simulation, and the results show the effect of RFS of SAEI is better than the other two, but we have to make a trade-off between the ability of RFS and the effect of tracking.

Constructions for almost perfect binary sequence pairs with even length
Xiuping PENG, Hongbin LIN, Jiadong REN, Xiaoyu CHEN
2018, 29(2):  256-261.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.05
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The concept of the binary sequence pair is generalized from a single binary sequence. Binary sequence pairs are applied in many fields of radar, sonar or communication systems, in which signals with optimal periodic correlation are required. Several types of almost perfect binary sequence pairs of length T = 2q are constructed, where q is an odd number. These almost perfect binary sequence pairs are based on binary ideal sequence or binary ideal two-level correlation sequence pairs by using Chinese remainder theorem. For these almost perfect binary sequence pairs with good balanced property, their corresponding divisible difference set pairs (DDSPs) are also derived.

Multi-sensor optimal weighted fusion incremental Kalman smoother
Xiaojun SUN, Guangming YAN
2018, 29(2):  262-268.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.06
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In practical applications, the system observation error is widespread. If the observation equation of the system has not been verified or corrected under certain environmental conditions, the unknown system errors and filtering errors will come into being. The incremental observation equation is derived, which can eliminate the unknown observation errors effectively. Furthermore, an incremental Kalman smoother is presented. Moreover, a weighted measurement fusion incremental Kalman smoother applying the globally optimal weighted measurement fusion algorithm is given. The simulation results show their effectiveness and feasibility.

Defence Electronics Technology
Deceptive jamming suppression in multistatic radar based on coherent clustering
Ahmed ABDALLA, Mohaned Giess Shokrallah AHMED, Yuan ZHAO, Ying XIONG, Bin TANG
2018, 29(2):  269-277.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.07
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This paper proposes a suppression method of the deceptive false target (FT) produced by digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) in a multistatic radar system. The simulated deceptive false targets from DRFM cannot be easily discriminated and suppressed with traditional radar systems. Therefore, multistatic radar has attracted considerable interest as it provides improved performance against deception jamming due to several separated receivers. This paper first investigates the received signal model in the presence of multiple false targets in all receivers of the multistatic radar. Then, obtain the propagation time delays of the false targets based on the cross-correlation test of the received signals in different receivers. In doing so, local-density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (LDBSCAN) is proposed to discriminate the FTs from the physical targets (PTs) after compensating the FTs time delays, where the FTs are approximately coincident with one position, while PTs possess small dispersion. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and validness of the proposed method.

ISAR imaging based on improved phase retrieval algorithm
Hongyin SHI, Saixue XIA, Ye TIAN
2018, 29(2):  278-285.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.08
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Traditional inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging methods for maneuvering targets have low resolution and poor capability of noise suppression. An ISAR imaging method of maneuvering targets based on phase retrieval is proposed, which can provide a high-resolution and focused map of the spatial distribution of scatterers on the target. According to theoretical derivation, the modulus of raw data from the maneuvering target is not affected by radial motion components for ISAR imaging system, so the phase retrieval algorithm can be used for ISAR imaging problems. However, the traditional phase retrieval algorithm will be not applicable to ISAR imaging under the condition of random noise. To solve this problem, an algorithm is put forward based on the range Doppler (RD) algorithm and oversampling smoothness (OSS) phase retrieval algorithm. The algorithm captures the target information in order to reduce the influence of the random phase on ISAR echoes, and then applies OSS for focusing imaging based on prior information of the RD algorithm. The simulated results demonstrate the validity of this algorithm, which cannot only obtain high resolution imaging for high speed maneuvering targets under the condition of random noise, but also substantially improve the success rate of the phase retrieval algorithm.

Systems Engineering
Design method of organizational structure for MAVs and UAVs heterogeneous team with adjustable autonomy
Jun CHEN, Xunjie QIU, Jia RONG, Xiaoguang GAO
2018, 29(2):  286-295.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.09
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The increasingly complex battlefield environment requests much closer connection in a team having both manned and unmanned aerial vehicles (MAVs and UAVs). This special heterogeneous team structure causes demands for effective organizational structure design solutions. Implementing adjustable autonomy in the organizational structure, the expected evaluation function is established based on the physical resource, intelligent resource, network efficiency, network vulnerability and task execution reliability. According to the above constraints, together with interaction latency, decision-making information processing capacity, and decision-making latency, we aim to find a preferential organizational structure. The proposed organizational structure includes cooperative relationships, supervisory control relationships, and decision-making authorization relationships. In addition, by considering the influence on the intelligent support capabilities and the task execution reliability created by adjustable autonomy, it helps to build the proposed organizational structure designed with certain degree of flexibility to deal with the potential changes in the unpredictable battlefield environment. Simulation is conducted to confirm our design to be valid. And the method is still valid under different battlefield environments and interventions.

Modeling and game strategy analysis of suppressing IADS for multiple fighters' cooperation
Qiuni LI, Rennong YANG, Haoliang LI, Huan ZHANG, Chao FENG
2018, 29(2):  296-304.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.10
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This paper addresses the problem of suppression of the integrated air defense system (IADS) by multiple fighters' cooperation. Considering the dynamic changing of the number of the nodes in the operational process, a profit model for the influence of the mission's cost for the whole system is developed for both offense and defensive sides. The scenario analysis is given for the process of suppressing the IADS by multiple fighters. Based on this scenario analysis, the modeling method and the specific expression for the payoff function are proposed in four cases for each node. Moreover, a distributed virtual learning algorithm is designed for the n-person and n-strategy game, and the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) of this game can be solved from the n×m×3-dimensional profit space. Finally, the simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the game algorithm.

Assessment and sequencing of air target threat based on intuitionistic fuzzy entropy and dynamic VIKOR
Kun ZHANG, Weiren KONG, Peipei LIU, Jiao SHI, Yu LEI, Jie ZOU
2018, 29(2):  305-310.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.11
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In view of the fact that traditional air target threat assessment methods are difficult to reflect the combat characteristics of uncertain, dynamic and hybrid formation, an algorithm is proposed to solve the multi-target threat assessment problems. The target attribute weight is calculated by the intuitionistic fuzzy entropy (IFE) algorithm and the time series weight is gained by the Poisson distribution method based on multi-times data. Finally, assessment and sequencing of the air multi-target threat model based on IFE and dynamic VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) is established with an example which indicates that the method is reasonable and effective.

Discrete decision model and multi-agent simulation of the Liang Zong two-chain hierarchical organization in a complex project
Qiang MAI, Yueqiang ZHAO, Shi AN
2018, 29(2):  311-320.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.12
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Different from the organization structure of complex projects in Western countries, the Liang Zong hierarchical organization structure of complex projects in China has two different chains, the chief-engineer chain and the general-director chain, to handle the trade-off between technical and management decisions. However, previous works on organization search have mainly focused on the single-chain hierarchical organization in which all decisions are regarded as homogeneous. The heterogeneity and the interdependency between technical decisions and management decisions have been neglected. A two-chain hierarchical organization structure mapped from a real complex project is constructed. Then, a discrete decision model for a Liang Zong two-chain hierarchical organization in an NK model framework is proposed. This model proves that this kind of organization structure can reduce the search space by a large amount and that the search process should reach a final stable state more quickly. For a more complicated decision mechanism, a multi-agent simulation based on the above NK model is used to explore the effect of the two-chain organization structure on the speed, stability, and performance of the search process. The results provide three insights into how, compared with the single-chain hierarchical organization, the two-chain organization can improve the search process: it can reduce the number of iterations efficiently; the search is more stable because the search space is a smoother hill-like fitness landscape; in general, the search performance can be improved. However, when the organization structure is very complicated, the performance of a two-chain organization is inferior to that of a single-chain organization. These findings about the efficiency of the unique Chinese-style organization structure can be used to guide organization design for complex projects.

Diffusion mechanism simulation of cloud manufacturing complex network based on cooperative game theory
Chao GENG, Shiyou QU, Yingying XIAO, Mei WANG, Guoqiang SHI, Tingyu LIN, Junjie XUE, Zhengxuan JIA
2018, 29(2):  321-335.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.13
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Cloud manufacturing is a specific implementation form of the "Internet + manufacturing" strategy. Why and how to develop cloud manufacturing platform (CMP), however, remains the key concern of both platform operators and users. A microscopic model is proposed to investigate advantages and diffusion forces of CMP through exploration of its diffusion process and mechanism. Specifically, a three-stage basic evolution process of CMP is innovatively proposed. Then, based on this basic process, a more complex CMP evolution model has been established in virtue of complex network theory, with five diffusion forces identified. Thereafter, simulations on CMP diffusion have been conducted. The results indicate that, CMP possesses better resource utilization, user satisfaction, and enterprise utility. Results of simulation on impacts of different diffusion forces show that both the time required for CMP to reach an equilibrium state and the final network size are affected simultaneously by the five diffusion forces. All these analyses indicate that CMP could create an open online cooperation environment and turns out to be an effective implementation of the "Internet + manufacturing" strategy.

Algorithm for complex network diameter based on distance matrix
Bin CHEN, Weixing ZHU, Ying LIU
2018, 29(2):  336-342.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.14
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The network diameter is an important characteristic parameter of a complex network. Calculation for a large-scale complex network's diameter has been an important subject in the study of complex networks. If the network diameter is calculated directly, the problem mainly exists in efficiency for searching and counting the shortest paths. If the network diameter is calculated indirectly by studying the statistical function about the relationship between the network diameter and parameters affecting the diameter, the problems not only exist in the efficiency of statistic, but also exist in the function which may be not applicable to all kinds of networks. An algorithm for the complex network diameter based on the k order distance matrix is proposed with a matrix multiplication approach, and a mathematical proof for the algorithm correctness is given as well. Furthermore, some relevant propositions and deductions for reducing the complexity of this algorithm are put forward. With a good theoretical basis and a simple calculation process, this algorithm can be used to calculate the diameter of a large-scale complex network with small-world effect more accurately and efficiently. Two cases about the advanced research projects agency (ARPA) network model and the Chinese airline network model are adopted to verify the effect of this algorithm.

Control Theory and Application
Adaptive sliding mode backstepping control for near space vehicles considering engine faults
Jing ZHAO, Bin JIANG, Fei XIE, Zhifeng GAO, Yufei XU
2018, 29(2):  343-351.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.15
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A fault tolerant control methodology based adaptive sliding mode (ASM) backstepping is proposed for near space vehicle (NSV) attitude control system under engine faults. The proposed scheme combined adaptive backstepping with the sliding mode control strategy could guarantee the system's stability and track desired signals under external disturbances and engine faults. Firstly, attitude mode description and the engine faulty model are given. Secondly, a nominal control law is designed. Thirdly, a sliding mode observer is given later in order to estimate both the information of engine faults and external disturbances. An adaptive sliding mode technology based on the previous nominal control law is developed via updating faulty parameters. Finally, analyze the system's fault-tolerant performance and reliability through experiment simulation, which verifies the proposed design of fault-tolerant control can tolerate engine faults, as well as the strong robustness for external disturbance.

Differential game strategy in three-player evasion and pursuit scenarios
Qilong SUN, Naiming QI, Longxu XIAO, Haiqi LIN
2018, 29(2):  352-366.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.16
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A conflict of three players, including an attacker, a defender, and a target with bounded control is discussed based on the differential game theories in which the target and the defender use an optimal pursuit strategy. The current approach chooses the miss distance as the outcome of the conflict. Different optimal guidance laws are investigated, and feasible conditions are analyzed for the attacker to accomplish an attacking task. For some given conditions, the attacker cannot intercept the target by only using a one-to-one optimal pursuit guidance law; thus, a guidance law for the attacker to reach a critical safe value is investigated. Specifically, the guidance law is divided into two parts. Before the engagement time between the defender and the attacker, the attacker uses this derived guidance law to guarantee that the evasion distance from the defender is safe, and that the zero-effort-miss (ZEM) distance between the attacker and the target is the smallest. After that engagement time, the attacker uses the optimal one-toone guidance law to accomplish the pursuit task. The advantages and limited conditions of these derived guidance laws are also investigated by using nonlinear simulations.

Integrated modeling of spacecraft relative motion dynamics using dual quaternion
Xuan PENG, Xiaoping SHI, Yupeng GONG
2018, 29(2):  367-377.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.17
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To realize high accurate control of relative position and attitude between two spacecrafts, the coupling between position and attitude must be fully considered and a more precise model should be established. This paper breaks the traditional divide and conquer idea, and uses a mathematical tool, namely dual quaternion to establish the integrated 6 degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) model of relative position and attitude, which describes the coupled relative motion in a compact and efficient form and needs less information of the target. Considering the complex operation rules and the unclarity of the current relative motion model in dual quaternion, necessary mathematical foundations are given at first, followed by clear and detailed modeling process and analysis. Finally a generalized proportion-derivative (PD) controller law is designed. The simulation results show that based on the integrated model established by dual quaternion, this control law can achieve a high control accuracy of relative motion.

Direction navigability analysis of geomagnetic field based on Gabor filter
Jing XIAO, Xiusheng DUAN, Xiaohui QI, Jianchen WANG
2018, 29(2):  378-385.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.18
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Direction navigability analysis is a supplement to the navigability analysis theory, in which extraction of the direction suitable-matching features (DSMFs) determines the evaluation performance. A method based on the Gabor filter is proposed to estimate the direction navigability of the geomagnetic field. First, the DSMFs are extracted based on the Gabor filter's responses. Second, in the view of pattern recognition, the classification accuracy in fault diagnosis is introduced as the objective function of the hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO) algorithm to optimize the Gabor filter's parameters. With its guidance, the DSMFs are extracted. Finally, a direction navigability analysis model is established with the support vector machine (SVM), and the performances of the models under different objective functions are discussed. Simulation results show the parameters of the Gabor filter have a significant influence on the DSMFs, which, in turn, affects the analysis results of direction navigability. Moreover, the risk of misclassification can be effectively reduced by using the analysis model with optimal Gabor filter parameters. The proposed method is not restricted in geomagnetic navigation, and it also can be used in other fields such as terrain matching and gravity navigation.

Software Algorithm and Simulation
An optimization method: hummingbirds optimization algorithm
Zhuoran ZHANG, Changqiang HUANG, Hanqiao HUANG, Shangqin TANG, Kangsheng DONG
2018, 29(2):  386-404.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.19
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This paper introduces an optimization algorithm, the hummingbirds optimization algorithm (HOA), which is inspired by the foraging process of hummingbirds. The proposed algorithm includes two phases: a self-searching phase and a guide-searching phase. With these two phases, the exploration and exploitation abilities of the algorithm can be balanced. Both the constrained and unconstrained benchmark functions are employed to test the performance of HOA. Ten classic benchmark functions are considered as unconstrained benchmark functions. Meanwhile, two engineering design optimization problems are employed as constrained benchmark functions. The results of these experiments demonstrate HOA is efficient and capable of global optimization.

Hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm with variable neighborhood search and memory mechanism
Chengli FAN, Qiang FU, Guangzheng LONG, Qinghua XING
2018, 29(2):  405-414.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.20
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Artificial bee colony (ABC) is one of the most popular swarm intelligence optimization algorithms which have been widely used in numerical optimization and engineering applications. However, there are still deficiencies in ABC regarding its local search ability and global search efficiency. Aiming at these deficiencies, an ABC variant named hybrid ABC (HABC) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the variable neighborhood search factor is added to the solution search equation, which can enhance the local search ability and increase the population diversity. Secondly, inspired by the neuroscience investigation of real honeybees, the memory mechanism is put forward, which assumes the artificial bees can remember their past successful experiences and further guide the subsequent foraging behavior. The proposed memory mechanism is used to improve the global search efficiency. Finally, the results of comparison on a set of ten benchmark functions demonstrate the superiority of HABC.

Multi-focus image fusion based on block matching in 3D transform domain
Dongsheng YANG, Shaohai HU, Shuaiqi LIU, Xiaole MA, Yuchao SUN
2018, 29(2):  415-428.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.21
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Fusion methods based on multi-scale transforms have become the mainstream of the pixel-level image fusion. However, most of these methods cannot fully exploit spatial domain information of source images, which lead to the degradation of image. This paper presents a fusion framework based on block-matching and 3D (BM3D) multi-scale transform. The algorithm first divides the image into different blocks and groups these 2D image blocks into 3D arrays by their similarity. Then it uses a 3D transform which consists of a 2D multi-scale and a 1D transform to transfer the arrays into transform coefficients, and then the obtained low- and high- coefficients are fused by different fusion rules. The final fused image is obtained from a series of fused 3D image block groups after the inverse transform by using an aggregation process. In the experimental part, we comparatively analyze some existing algorithms and the using of different transforms, e.g. non-subsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT), non-subsampled Shearlet transform (NSST), in the 3D transform step. Experimental results show that the proposed fusion framework can not only improve subjective visual effect, but also obtain better objective evaluation criteria than state-of-the-art methods.

Remaining useful life prediction for a nonlinear multi-degradation system with public noise
Hanwen ZHANG, Maoyin CHEN, Donghua ZHOU
2018, 29(2):  429-435.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.22
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To predict the remaining useful life (RUL) for a class of nonlinear multi-degradation systems, a method is presented. In the real industrial processes, systems are usually composed by several parts or components, and these parts or components are working in the same environment, thus the degradations of these parts or components will be influenced by common factors. To describe such a phenomenon in degradations, a multi-degradation model with public noise is proposed. To identify the degradation states and the unknown parameters, an iterative estimation method is proposed by using the Kalman filter and the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Next, with known thresholds, the RUL of each degradation can be predicted by using the first hitting time (FHT). In addition, the RUL of the whole system can be obtained by a Copula function. Finally, a practical case is used to demonstrate the method proposed.

Health evaluation method for degrading systems subject to dependent competing risks
Shuai ZHAO, Viliam MAKIS, Shaowei CHEN, Yong LI
2018, 29(2):  436-444.  doi:10.21629/JSEE.2018.02.23
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This paper proposes a health evaluation method for degrading systems subject to competing risks of dependent soft and hard failures. To characterize the time-varying degradation rate, the degradation process is determined by a non-stationary Gamma process and the soft failure is encountered when it exceeds a predefined critical level. For the hard failure, a Cox's proportional hazard model is applied to describe the hazard rate of the time to system failure. The dependent relationship is modeled by incorporating the degradation process as a time-varying covariate into the Cox's proportional hazard model. To facilitate the health characteristics evaluation, a discretization technique is applied both to the degradation process and the monitoring time. All health characteristics can be obtained in the explicit form using the transition probability matrix, which is computationally attractive for practical applications. Finally, a numerical analysis is carried out to show the effectiveness and the performance of the proposed health evaluation method.