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03 March 2023, Volume 34 Issue 1
Coherent change detection of fine traces based on multi-angle SAR observations
Xiuli KOU, Guanyong WANG, Jun LI, Jie CHEN
2023, 34(1):  1-8.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000001
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Coherent change detection (CCD) is an effective method to detect subtle scene changes that occur between temporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. Most coherence estimators are obtained from a Hermitian product based on local statistics. Increasing the number of samples in the local window can improve the estimation bias, but cause the loss of the estimated images spatial resolution. The limitations of these estimators lead to unclear contour of the disturbed region, and even the omission of fine change targets. In this paper, a CCD approach is proposed to detect fine scene changes from multi-temporal and multi-angle SAR image pairs. Multi-angle CCD estimator can improve the contrast between the change target and the background clutter by jointly accumulating single-angle alternative estimator results without further loss of image resolution. The sensitivity of detection performance to image quantity and angle interval is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and experimental results verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

VLCA: vision-language aligning model with cross-modal attention for bilingual remote sensing image captioning
Tingting WEI, Weilin YUAN, Junren LUO, Wanpeng ZHANG, Lina LU
2023, 34(1):  9-18.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000035
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In the field of satellite imagery, remote sensing image captioning (RSIC) is a hot topic with the challenge of overfitting and difficulty of image and text alignment. To address these issues, this paper proposes a vision-language aligning paradigm for RSIC to jointly represent vision and language. First, a new RSIC dataset DIOR-Captions is built for augmenting object detection in optical remote (DIOR) sensing images dataset with manually annotated Chinese and English contents. Second, a Vision-Language aligning model with Cross-modal Attention (VLCA) is presented to generate accurate and abundant bilingual descriptions for remote sensing images. Third, a cross-modal learning network is introduced to address the problem of visual-lingual alignment. Notably, VLCA is also applied to end-to-end Chinese captions generation by using the pre-training language model of Chinese. The experiments are carried out with various baselines to validate VLCA on the proposed dataset. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more descriptive and informative than existing algorithms in producing captions.

Classification of birds and drones by exploiting periodical motions in Doppler spectrum series
Jia DUAN, Lei ZHANG, Yifeng WU, Yue ZHANG, Zeya ZHAO, Xinrong GUO
2023, 34(1):  19-27.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000002
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With the rapidly growing abuse of drones, monitoring and classification of birds and drones have become a crucial safety issue. With similar low radar cross sections (RCSs), velocities, and heights, drones are usually difficult to be distinguished from birds in radar measurements. In this paper, we propose to exploit different periodical motions of birds and drones from high-resolution Doppler spectrum sequences (DSSs) for classification. This paper presents an elaborate feature vector representing the periodic fluctuations of RCS and micro kinematics. Fed by the Doppler spectrum and feature sequence, the long to short-time memory (LSTM) is used to solve the time series classification. Different classification schemes to exploit the Doppler spectrum series are validated and compared by extensive real-data experiments, which confirms the effectiveness and superiorities of the proposed algorithm.

Autonomous landing scene recognition based on transfer learning for drones
Hao DU, Wei WANG, Xuerao WANG, Yuanda WANG
2023, 34(1):  28-35.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000031
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In this paper, we study autonomous landing scene recognition with knowledge transfer for drones. Considering the difficulties in aerial remote sensing, especially that some scenes are extremely similar, or the same scene has different representations in different altitudes, we employ a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based on knowledge transfer and fine-tuning to solve the problem. Then, LandingScenes-7 dataset is established and divided into seven classes. Moreover, there is still a novelty detection problem in the classifier, and we address this by excluding other landing scenes using the approach of thresholding in the prediction stage. We employ the transfer learning method based on ResNeXt-50 backbone with the adaptive momentum (ADAM) optimization algorithm. We also compare ResNet-50 backbone and the momentum stochastic gradient descent (SGD) optimizer. Experiment results show that ResNeXt-50 based on the ADAM optimization algorithm has better performance. With a pre-trained model and fine-tuning, it can achieve 97.8450% top-1 accuracy on the LandingScenes-7 dataset, paving the way for drones to autonomously learn landing scenes.

A review of addressing class noise problems of remote sensing classification
Wei FENG, Yijun LONG, Shuo WANG, Yinghui QUAN
2023, 34(1):  36-46.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000034
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The development of image classification is one of the most important research topics in remote sensing. The prediction accuracy depends not only on the appropriate choice of the machine learning method but also on the quality of the training datasets. However, real-world data is not perfect and often suffers from noise. This paper gives an overview of noise filtering methods. Firstly, the types of noise and the consequences of class noise on machine learning are presented. Secondly, class noise handling methods at both the data level and the algorithm level are introduced. Then ensemble-based class noise handling methods including class noise removal, correction, and noise robust ensemble learners are presented. Finally, a summary of existing data-cleaning techniques is given.

Coherent range-dependent map-drift algorithm for improving SAR motion compensation
Man ZHANG, Guanyong WANG, Feiming WEI, Xue JIN
2023, 34(1):  47-55.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000003
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Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is usually sensitive to trajectory deviations that cause serious motion error in the recorded data. In this paper, a coherent range-dependent map-drift (CRDMD) algorithm is developed to accommodate the range-variant motion errors. By utilizing the algorithm as an estimate core, robust motion compensation strategy is proposed for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) SAR imagery. CRDMD outperforms the conventional map-drift algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency. Real data experiments show that the proposed approach is appropriate for precise motion compensation for UAV SAR.

Airborne sparse flight array SAR 3D imaging based on compressed sensing in frequency domain
He TIAN, Chunzhu DONG, Hongcheng YIN, Li YUAN
2023, 34(1):  56-67.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2022.000125
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In airborne array synthetic aperture radar (SAR), the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance and cross-track resolution depends on the length of the equivalent array. In this paper, Barker sequence criterion is used for sparse flight sampling of airborne array SAR, in order to obtain high cross-track resolution in as few times of flights as possible. Under each flight, the imaging algorithm of back projection (BP) and the data extraction method based on modified uniformly redundant arrays (MURAs) are utilized to obtain complex 3D image pairs. To solve the side-lobe noise in images, the interferometry between each image pair is implemented, and compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction is adopted in the frequency domain. Furthermore, to restore the geometrical relationship between each flight, the phase information corresponding to negative MURA is compensated on each single-pass image reconstructed by CS. Finally, by coherent accumulation of each complex image, the high resolution in cross-track direction is obtained. Simulations and experiments in X-band verify the availability.

Optimization method of linear barrier coverage deployment for multistatic radar
Haipeng LI, Dazheng FENG, Xiaohui WANG
2023, 34(1):  68-80.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2022.000124
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To address the problem of building linear barrier coverage with the location restriction, an optimization method for deploying multistatic radars is proposed, where the location restriction splits the deployment line into two segments. By proving the characteristics of deployment patterns, an optimal deployment sequence consisting of multiple deployment patterns is proposed and exploited to cover each segment. The types and numbers of deployment patterns are determined by an algorithm that combines the integer linear programming (ILP) and exhaustive method (EM). In addition, to reduce the computation amount, a formula is introduced to calculate the upper threshold of receivers’ number in a deployment pattern. Furthermore, since the objective function is non-convex and non-analytic, the overall model is divided into two layers concerning two suboptimization problems. Subsequently, another algorithm that integrates the segments and layers is proposed to determine the deployment parameters, such as the minimum cost, parameters of the optimal deployment sequence, and the location of the split point. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively determine the optimal deployment parameters under the location restriction.

Joint mission and route planning of unmanned air vehicles via a learning-based heuristic
Jianmai SHI, Jiaming ZHANG, Hongtao LEI, Zhong LIU, Rui WANG
2023, 34(1):  81-98.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000005
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Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) have been regularly employed in modern wars to conduct different missions. Instead of addressing mission planning and route planning separately, this study investigates the issue of joint mission and route planning for a fleet of UAVs. The mission planning determines the configuration of weapons in UAVs and the weapons to attack targets, while the route planning determines the UAV’s visiting sequence for the targets. The problem is formulated as an integer linear programming model. Due to the inefficiency of CPLEX on large scale optimization problems, an effective learning-based heuristic, namely, population based adaptive large neighborhood search (P-ALNS), is proposed to solve the model. In P-ALNS, seven neighborhood structures are designed and adaptively utilized in terms of their historical performance. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed model and algorithm are demonstrated on test instances of small, medium and large sizes. In particular, P-ALNS achieves comparable solutions or as good as those of CPLEX on small-size (20 targets) instances in much shorter time.

A multi-UAV deployment method for border patrolling based on Stackelberg game
Xing LEI, Xiaoxuan HU, Guoqiang WANG, He LUO
2023, 34(1):  99-116.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000022
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To strengthen border patrol measures, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are gradually used in many countries to detect illegal entries on borders. However, how to efficiently deploy limited UAVs to patrol on borders of large areas remains challenging. In this paper, we first model the problem of deploying UAVs for border patrol as a Stackelberg game. Two players are considered in this game: The border patrol agency is the leader, who optimizes the patrol path of UAVs to detect the illegal immigrant. The illegal immigrant is the follower, who selects a certain area of the border to pass through at a certain time after observing the leader’s strategy. Second, a compact linear programming problem is proposed to tackle the exponential growth of the number of leader’s strategies. Third, a method is proposed to reduce the size of the strategy space of the follower. Then, we provide some theoretic results to present the effect of parameters of the model on leader’s utilities. Experimental results demonstrate the positive effect of limited starting and ending areas of UAV’s patrolling conditions and multiple patrolling altitudes on the leader ’s utility, and show that the proposed solution outperforms two conventional patrol strategies and has strong robustness.

Reinforcement learning-based scheduling of multi-battery energy storage system
Guangran CHENG, Lu DONG, Xin YUAN, Changyin SUN
2023, 34(1):  117-128.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000036
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In this paper, a reinforcement learning-based multi-battery energy storage system (MBESS) scheduling policy is proposed to minimize the consumers ’ electricity cost. The MBESS scheduling problem is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP) with unknown transition probability. However, the optimal value function is time-dependent and difficult to obtain because of the periodicity of the electricity price and residential load. Therefore, a series of time-independent action-value functions are proposed to describe every period of a day. To approximate every action-value function, a corresponding critic network is established, which is cascaded with other critic networks according to the time sequence. Then, the continuous management strategy is obtained from the related action network. Moreover, a two-stage learning protocol including offline and online learning stages is provided for detailed implementation in real-time battery management. Numerical experimental examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed algorithm.

Sequential quadratic programming-based non-cooperative target distributed hybrid processing optimization method
Xiaocheng SONG, Jiangtao WANG, Jun WANG, Liang SUN, Yanghe FENG, Zhi LI
2023, 34(1):  129-140.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000037
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The distributed hybrid processing optimization problem of non-cooperative targets is an important research direction for future networked air-defense and anti-missile firepower systems. In this paper, the air-defense anti-missile targets defense problem is abstracted as a nonconvex constrained combinatorial optimization problem with the optimization objective of maximizing the degree of contribution of the processing scheme to non-cooperative targets, and the constraints mainly consider geographical conditions and anti-missile equipment resources. The grid discretization concept is used to partition the defense area into network nodes, and the overall defense strategy scheme is described as a nonlinear programming problem to solve the minimum defense cost within the maximum defense capability of the defense system network. In the solution of the minimum defense cost problem, the processing scheme, equipment coverage capability, constraints and node cost requirements are characterized, then a nonlinear mathematical model of the non-cooperative target distributed hybrid processing optimization problem is established, and a local optimal solution based on the sequential quadratic programming algorithm is constructed, and the optimal firepower processing scheme is given by using the sequential quadratic programming method containing non-convex quadratic equations and inequality constraints. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation examples.

A simulation-based emergency force planning method for social security events
Xuesheng YANG, Yingli WANG, Yong GUAN
2023, 34(1):  141-148.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000038
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The occurrence of social security events is uncertain, and the distribution characteristics are highly complex due to a variety of external factors, posing challenges to their rapid and effective handling. The scientific and reasonable requirement evaluation of the emergency force to deal with social security events is very urgent. Based on data analysis, this paper uses the neural network, operational research, modelling and simulation to predict and analyze social security events, studies the usage rule of emergency force and deployment algorithm, and conducts simulation experiments to evaluate and compare the different force deployment schemes for selection.

Hybrid TDOA/FDOA and track optimization of UAV swarm based on A-optimality
Hao LI, Hemin SUN, Ronghua ZHOU, Huainian ZHANG
2023, 34(1):  149-159.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000008
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The source location based on the hybrid time difference of arrival (TDOA)/frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) is a basic problem in wireless sensor networks, and the layout of sensors in the hybrid TDOA/FDOA positioning will greatly affect the accuracy of positioning. Using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as base stations, by optimizing the trajectory of the UAV swarm, an optimal positioning configuration is formed to improve the accuracy of the target position and velocity estimation. In this paper, a hybrid TDOA/FDOA positioning model is first established, and the positioning accuracy of the hybrid TDOA/FDOA under different positioning configurations and different measurement errors is simulated by the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) factor. Second, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) matrix of hybrid TDOA/FDOA location under different moving states of the target is derived theoretically, the objective function of the track optimization is obtained, and the track of the UAV swarm is optimized in real time. The simulation results show that the track optimization effectively improves the accuracy of the target position and velocity estimation.

Robust missile autopilot design based on dynamic surface control
Jianping ZHOU, Wei LI, Qunli XIA, Huan JIANG
2023, 34(1):  160-171.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2022.000154
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Since the dynamical system and control system of the missile are typically nonlinear, an effective acceleration tracking autopilot is designed using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in order to make the missile control system more robust despite the uncertainty of the dynamical parameters and the presence of disturbances. Firstly, the nonlinear mathematical model of the tail-controlled missile is decomposed into slow acceleration dynamics and fast pitch rate dynamics based on the naturally existing time scale separation. Secondly, the controller based on DSC is designed after obtaining the linear dynamics characteristics of the slow and fast subsystems. An extended state observer is used to detect the uncertainty of the system state variables and aerodynamic parameters to achieve the compensation of the control law. The closed-loop stability of the controller is derived and rigorously analyzed. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the design is verified by Monte Carlo simulation considering different initial conditions and parameter uptake. Simulation results illustrate that the missile autopilot based DSC controller achieves better performance and robustness than the other two well-known autopilots. The method proposed in this paper is applied to the design of a missile autopilot, and the results show that the acceleration tracking autopilot based on the DSC controller can ensure accurate tracking of the required commands and has better performance.

Optimal maneuvering strategy of spacecraft evasion based on angles-only measurement and observability analysis
Yijie ZHANG, Jiongqi WANG, Bowen HOU, Dayi WANG, Yuyun CHEN
2023, 34(1):  172-184.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000026
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Spacecraft orbit evasion is an effective method to ensure space safety. In the spacecraft’s orbital plane, the space non-cooperate target with autonomous approaching to the spacecraft may have a dangerous rendezvous. To deal with this problem, an optimal maneuvering strategy based on the relative navigation observability degree is proposed with angles-only measurements. A maneuver evasion relative navigation model in the spacecraft’s orbital plane is constructed and the observabi-lity measurement criteria with process noise and measurement noise are defined based on the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound. Further, the optimal maneuver evasion strategy in spacecraft’s orbital plane based on the observability is proposed. The strategy provides a new idea for spacecraft to evade safety threats autonomously. Compared with the spacecraft evasion problem based on the absolute navigation, more accurate evasion results can be obtained. The simulation indicates that this optimal strategy can weaken the system’s observability and reduce the state estimation accuracy of the non-cooperative target, making it impossible for the non-cooperative target to accurately approach the spacecraft.

Cooperative game theory-based steering law design of a CMG system
Bing HUA, Rui NI, Mohong ZHENG, Yunhua WU, Zhiming CHEN
2023, 34(1):  185-196.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000024
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Spacecraft require a large-angle manoeuvre when performing agile manoeuvring tasks, therefore a control moment gyroscope (CMG) is employed to provide a strong moment. However, the control of the CMG system easily falls into singularity, which renders the actuator unable to output the required moment. To solve the singularity problem of CMGs, the control law design of a CMG system based on a cooperative game is proposed. First, the cooperative game model is constructed according to the quadratic programming problem, and the cooperative strategy is constructed. When the strategy falls into singularity, the weighting coefficient is introduced to carry out the strategy game to achieve the optimal strategy. In theory, it is proven that the cooperative game manipulation law of the CMG system converges, the sum of the CMG frame angular velocities is minimized, the energy consumption is small, and there is no output torque error. Then, the CMG group system is simulated. When the CMG system is near the singular point, it can quickly escape the singularity. When the CMG system falls into the singularity, it can also escape the singularity. Considering the optimization of angular momentum and energy consumption, the feasibility of the CMG system steering law based on a cooperative game is proven.

UAV penetration mission path planning based on improved holonic particle swarm optimization
Jing LUO, Qianchao LIANG, Hao LI
2023, 34(1):  197-213.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2022.000132
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To meet the requirements of safety, concealment, and timeliness of trajectory planning during the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) penetration process, a three-dimensional path planning algorithm is proposed based on improved holonic particle swarm optimization (IHPSO). Firstly, the requirements of terrain threat, radar detection, and penetration time in the process of UAV penetration are quantified. Regarding radar threats, a radar echo analysis method based on radar cross section (RCS) and the spatial situation is proposed to quantify the concealment of UAV penetration. Then the structure-particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is improved from three aspects. First, the conversion ability of the search strategy is enhanced by using the system clustering method and the information entropy grouping strategy instead of random grouping and constructing the state switching conditions based on the fitness function. Second, the unclear setting of iteration numbers is addressed by using particle spacing to create the termination condition of the algorithm. Finally, the trajectory is optimized to meet the intended requirements by building a predictive control model and using the IHPSO for simulation verification. Numerical examples show the superiority of the proposed method over the existing PSO methods.

Robust fault detection for delta operator switched fuzzy systems with bilateral packet losses
Yamin FAN, Duanjin ZHANG
2023, 34(1):  214-223.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000025
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Considering packet losses, time-varying delay, and parameter uncertainty in the switched fuzzy system, this paper designs a robust fault detection filter at any switching rate and analyzes the H performance of the system. Firstly, the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to establish a global fuzzy model for the uncertain nonlinear time-delay switched system, and the packet loss process is modeled as a mathematical model satisfying Bernoulli distribution. Secondly, through the average dwell time method and multiple Lyapunov functions, the exponentially stable condition of the nonlinear network switched system is given. Finally, specific parameters of the robust fault detection filter can be obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation results.

Flexible predictive power-split control for battery-supercapacitor systems of electric vehicles using IVHS
Defeng HE, Jie LUO, Di LIN, Shiming YU
2023, 34(1):  224-235.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000013
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The utilization of traffic information received from intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS) to plan velocity and split output power for multi-source vehicles is currently a research hotspot. However, it is an open issue to plan vehicle velocity and distribute output power between different supply units simultaneously due to the strongly coupling characteristic of the velocity planning and the power distribution. To address this issue, a flexible predictive power-split control strategy based on IVHS is proposed for electric vehicles (EVs) equipped with battery-supercapacitor system (BSS). Unlike hierarchical strategies to plan vehicle velocity and distribute output power separately, a monolayer model predictive control (MPC) method is employed to optimize them online at the same time. Firstly, a flexible velocity planning strategy is designed based on the signal phase and time (SPAT) information received from IVHS and then the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) is adopted to formulate the optimal control problem of the BSS. Then, the flexible velocity planning strategy and the optimal control problem of BSS are embedded into an MPC framework, which is online solved using the shooting method in a fashion of receding horizon. Simulation results verify that the proposed strategy achieves a superior performance compared with the hierarchical strategy in terms of transportation efficiency, battery capacity loss, energy consumption and computation time.

Bug localization based on syntactical and semantic information of source code
Xuefeng YAN, Shasha CHENG, Liqin GUO
2023, 34(1):  236-246.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000010
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The existing software bug localization models treat the source file as natural language, which leads to the loss of syntactical and structure information of the source file. A bug localization model based on syntactical and semantic information of source code is proposed. Firstly, abstract syntax tree (AST) is divided based on node category to obtain statement sequence. The statement tree is encoded into vectors to capture lexical and syntactical knowledge at the statement level. Secondly, the source code is transformed into vector representation by the sequence naturalness of the statement. Therefore, the problem of gradient vanishing and explosion caused by a large AST size is obviated when using AST to the represent source code. Finally, the correlation between bug reports and source files are comprehensively analyzed from three aspects of syntax, semantics and text to locate the buggy code. Experiments show that compared with other standard models, the proposed model improves the performance of bug localization, and it has good advantages in mean reciprocal rank (MRR), mean average precision (MAP) and Top N Rank.

Remaining useful life prediction based on nonlinear random coefficient regression model with fusing failure time data
Fengfei WANG, Shengjin TANG, Xiaoyan SUN, Liang LI, Chuanqiang YU, Xiaosheng SI
2023, 34(1):  247-258.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000006
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Remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is one of the most crucial elements in prognostics and health management (PHM). Aiming at the imperfect prior information, this paper proposes an RUL prediction method based on a nonlinear random coefficient regression (RCR) model with fusing failure time data. Firstly, some interesting natures of parameters estimation based on the nonlinear RCR model are given. Based on these natures, the failure time data can be fused as the prior information reasonably. Specifically, the fixed parameters are calculated by the field degradation data of the evaluated equipment and the prior information of random coefficient is estimated with fusing the failure time data of congeneric equipment. Then, the prior information of the random coefficient is updated online under the Bayesian framework, the probability density function (PDF) of the RUL with considering the limitation of the failure threshold is performed. Finally, two case studies are used for experimental verification. Compared with the traditional Bayesian method, the proposed method can effectively reduce the influence of imperfect prior information and improve the accuracy of RUL prediction.