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18 February 2024, Volume 35 Issue 1
2024, 35(1):  0. 
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Overview of radar detection methods for low altitude targets in marine environments
Yong YANG, Boyu YANG
2024, 35(1):  1-13.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000026
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In this paper, a comprehensive overview of radar detection methods for low-altitude targets in maritime environments is presented, focusing on the challenges posed by sea clutter and multipath scattering. The performance of the radar detection methods under sea clutter, multipath, and combined conditions is categorized and summarized, and future research directions are outlined to enhance radar detection performance for low–altitude targets in maritime environments.

Scale effect removal and range migration correction for hypersonic target coherent detection
Shang WU, Zhi SUN, Xingtao JIANG, Haonan ZHANG, Jiangyun DENG, Xiaolong LI, Guolong CUI
2024, 35(1):  14-23.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000151
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The detection of hypersonic targets usually confronts range migration (RM) issue before coherent integration (CI). The traditional methods aiming at correcting RM to obtain CI mainly considers the narrow-band radar condition. However, with the increasing requirement of far-range detection, the time bandwidth product, which is corresponding to radar’s mean power, should be promoted in actual application. Thus, the echo signal generates the scale effect (SE) at large time bandwidth product situation, influencing the intra and inter pulse integration performance. To eliminate SE and correct RM, this paper proposes an effective algorithm, i.e., scaled location rotation transform (ScLRT). The ScLRT can remove SE to obtain the matching pulse compression (PC) as well as correct RM to complete CI via the location rotation transform, being implemented by seeking the actual rotation angle. Compared to the traditional coherent detection algorithms, ScLRT can address the SE problem to achieve better detection/estimation capabilities. At last, this paper gives several simulations to assess the viability of ScLRT.

Robust adaptive radar beamforming based on iterative training sample selection using kurtosis of generalized inner product statistics
2024, 35(1):  24-30.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000025
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In engineering application, there is only one adaptive weights estimated by most of traditional early warning radars for adaptive interference suppression in a pulse reputation interval (PRI). Therefore, if the training samples used to calculate the weight vector does not contain the jamming, then the jamming cannot be removed by adaptive spatial filtering. If the weight vector is constantly updated in the range dimension, the training data may contain target echo signals, resulting in signal cancellation effect. To cope with the situation that the training samples are contaminated by target signal, an iterative training sample selection method based on non-homogeneous detector (NHD) is proposed in this paper for updating the weight vector in entire range dimension. The principle is presented, and the validity is proven by simulation results.

Persymmetric adaptive polarimetric detection of subspace range-spread targets in compound Gaussian sea clutter
Shuwen XU, Yifan HAO, Zhuo WANG, Jian XUE
2024, 35(1):  31-42.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000133
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This paper focuses on the adaptive detection of range and Doppler dual-spread targets in non-homogeneous and non-Gaussian sea clutter. The sea clutter from two polarimetric channels is modeled as a compound-Gaussian model with different parameters, and the target is modeled as a subspace range-spread target model. The persymmetric structure is used to model the clutter covariance matrix, in order to reduce the reliance on secondary data of the designed detectors. Three adaptive polarimetric persymmetric detectors are designed based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), Rao test, and Wald test. All the proposed detectors have constant false-alarm rate property with respect to the clutter texture, the speckle covariance matrix. Experimental results on simulated and measured data show that three adaptive detectors outperform the competitors in different clutter environments, and the proposed GLRT detector has the best detection performance under different parameters.

Adaptive detection of range-spread targets in homogeneous and partially homogeneous clutter plus subspace interference
Tao JIAN, Jia HE, Bencai WANG, Yu LIU, Congan XU, Zikeng XIE
2024, 35(1):  43-54.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000147
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Adaptive detection of range-spread targets is considered in the presence of subspace interference plus Gaussian clutter with unknown covariance matrix. The target signal and interference are supposed to lie in two linearly independent subspaces with deterministic but unknown coordinates. Relying on the two-step criteria, two adaptive detectors based on Gradient tests are proposed, in homogeneous and partially homogeneous clutter plus subspace interference, respectively. Both of the proposed detectors exhibit theoretically constant false alarm rate property against unknown clutter covariance matrix as well as the power level. Numerical results show that, the proposed detectors have better performance than their existing counterparts, especially for mismatches in the signal steering vectors.

Short-time maritime target detection based on polarization scattering characteristics
Shichao CHEN, Feng LUO, Min TIAN, Wanghan LYU
2024, 35(1):  55-64.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000148
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In this paper, a detection method combining Cameron decomposition based on polarization scattering characteristics in sea clutter background is proposed. Firstly, the Cameron decomposition is exploited to fuse the radar echoes of full polarization channels at the data level. Due to the artificial material structure on the surface of the target, it can be shown that the non-reciprocity of the target cell is stronger than that of the clutter cell. Then, based on the analysis of the decomposition results, a new feature with scattering geometry characteristics in polarization domain, denoted as Cameron polarization decomposition scattering weight (CPD-SW), is extracted as the test statistic, which can achieve more detailed descriptions of the clutter scattering characteristics utilizing the difference between their scattering types. Finally, the superiority of the proposed CPD-SW detector over traditional detectors in improving detection performance is verified by the IPIX measured dataset, which has strong stability under short-time observation in threshold detection and can also improve the separability of feature space zin anomaly detection.

Unconditionally stable Crank-Nicolson algorithm with enhanced absorption for rotationally symmetric multi-scale problems in anisotropic magnetized plasma
Yi WEN, Junxiang WANG, Hongbing XU
2024, 35(1):  65-73.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000072
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Large calculation error can be formed by directly employing the conventional Yee’s grid to curve surfaces. In order to alleviate such condition, unconditionally stable Crank-Nicolson Douglas-Gunn (CNDG) algorithm with is proposed for rotationally symmetric multi-scale problems in anisotropic magnetized plasma. Within the CNDG algorithm, an alternative scheme for the simulation of anisotropic plasma is proposed in body-of-revolution domains. Convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) formulation is proposed to efficiently solve the open region problems. Numerical example is carried out for the illustration of effectiveness including the efficiency, resources, and absorption. Through the results, it can be concluded that the proposed scheme shows considerable performance during the simulation.

Three-channel CMOS transimpedance amplifier for LiDAR sensor receiver
Ruqing LIU, Jingguo ZHU, Yan JIANG, Feng LI, Chenghao JIANG, Zhe MENG
2024, 35(1):  74-80.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000058
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For time-of-flight (TOF) light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a three-channel high-performance transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with high immunity to input load capacitance is presented. A regulated cascade (RGC) as the input stage is at the core of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit chip, giving it more immunity to input photodiode detectors. A simple smart output interface acting as a feedback structure, which is rarely found in other designs, reduces the chip size and power consumption simultaneously. The circuit is designed using a 0.5 μm CMOS process technology to achieve low cost. The device delivers a 33.87 dB? transimpedance gain at 350 MHz. With a higher input load capacitance, it shows a ?3 dB bandwidth of 461 MHz, indicating a better detector tolerance at the front end of the system. Under a 3.3 V supply voltage, the device consumes 5.2 mW, and the total chip area with three channels is 402.8×597.0 μm2 (including the test pads).

Triad-displaced ULAs configuration for non-circular sources with larger continuous virtual aperture and enhanced degrees of freedom
Abdul Hayee SHAIKH, Xiaoyu DANG, Daqing HUANG
2024, 35(1):  81-93.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2022.000128
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Non-uniform linear array (NULA) configurations are well renowned due to their structural ability for providing increased degrees of freedom (DOF) and wider array aperture than uniform linear arrays (ULAs). These characteristics play a significant role in improving the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation accuracy. However, most of the existing NULA geometries are primarily applicable to circular sources (CSs), while they limitedly improve the DOF and continuous virtual aperture for non-circular sources (NCSs). Toward this purpose, we present a triad-displaced ULAs (Tdis-ULAs) configuration for NCS. The Tdis-ULAs structure generally consists of three ULAs, which are appropriately placed. The proposed antenna array approach fully exploits the non-circular characteristics of the sources. Given the same number of elements, the Tdis-ULAs design achieves more DOF and larger hole-free co-array aperture than its sparse array competitors. Advantageously, the number of uniform DOF, optimal distribution of elements among the ULAs, and precise element positions are uniquely determined by the closed-form expressions. Moreover, the proposed array also produces a filled resulting co-array. Numerical simulations are conducted to show the performance advantages of the proposed Tdis-ULAs configuration over its counterpart designs.

Requirements ranking based on crowd-sourcing high-end product USs
Yufeng MA, Yajie DOU, Xiangqian XU, Qingyang JIA, Yuejin TAN
2024, 35(1):  94-104.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000164
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Based on the characteristics of high-end products, crowd-sourcing user stories can be seen as an effective means of gathering requirements, involving a large user base and generating a substantial amount of unstructured feedback. The key challenge lies in transforming abstract user needs into specific ones, requiring integration and analysis. Therefore, we propose a topic mining-based approach to categorize, summarize, and rank product requirements from user stories. Specifically, after determining the number of story categories based on pyLDAvis, we initially classify “I want to” phrases within user stories. Subsequently, classic topic models are applied to each category to generate their names, defining each post-classification user story category as a requirement. Furthermore, a weighted ranking function is devised to calculate the importance of each requirement. Finally, we validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method using 2 966 crowd-sourced user stories related to smart home systems.

Product quality prediction based on RBF optimized by firefly algorithm
Huihui HAN, Jian WANG, Sen CHEN, Manting YAN
2024, 35(1):  105-117.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000061
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With the development of information technology, a large number of product quality data in the entire manufacturing process is accumulated, but it is not explored and used effectively. The traditional product quality prediction models have many disadvantages, such as high complexity and low accuracy. To overcome the above problems, we propose an optimized data equalization method to pre-process dataset and design a simple but effective product quality prediction model: radial basis function model optimized by the firefly algorithm with Levy flight mechanism (RBFFALM). First, the new data equalization method is introduced to pre-process the dataset, which reduces the dimension of the data, removes redundant features, and improves the data distribution. Then the RBFFALFM is used to predict product quality. Comprehensive experiments conducted on real-world product quality datasets validate that the new model RBFFALFM combining with the new data pre-processing method outperforms other previous methods on predicting pro-duct quality.

Design and pricing of maintenance service contract based on Nash non-cooperative game approach
Chun SU, Kui HUANG
2024, 35(1):  118-129.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000010
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Nowadays manufacturers are facing fierce challenge. Apart from the products, providing customers with multiple maintenance options in the service contract becomes more popular, since it can help to improve customer satisfaction, and ultimately promote sales and maximize profit for the manufacturer. By considering the combinations of corrective maintenance and preventive maintenance, totally three types of maintenance service contracts are designed. Moreover, attractive incentive and penalty mechanisms are adopted in the contracts. On this basis, Nash non-cooperative game is applied to analyze the revenue for both the manufacturer and customers, and so as to optimize the pricing mechanism of maintenance service contract and achieve a win-win situation. Numerical experiments are conducted. The results show that by taking into account the incentive and penalty mechanisms, the revenue can be improved for both the customers and manufacturer. Moreover, with the increase of repair rate and improvement factor in the preventive maintenance, the revenue will increase gradually for both the parties.

Complex adaptive system theory, agent-based modeling, and simulation in dominant technology formation
Ruihan ZHANG, Bing SUN
2024, 35(1):  130-153.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000160
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Dominant technology formation is the key for the high-tech industry to “cross the chasm” and gain an established foothold in the market (and hence disrupt the regime). Therefore, a stimulus-response model is proposed to investigate the dominant technology by exploring its formation process and mechanism. Specifically, based on complex adaptive system theory and the basic stimulus-response model, we use a combination of agent-based modeling and system dynamics modeling to capture the interactions between dominant technology and the socio-technical landscape. The results indicate the following: (i) The dynamic interaction is “stimulus-reaction-selection”, which promotes the dominant technology ’s formation. (ii) The dominant technology’s formation can be described as a dynamic process in which the adaptation intensity of technology standards increases continuously until it becomes the leading technology under the dual action of internal and external mechanisms. (iii) The dominant technology’s formation in the high-tech industry is influenced by learning ability, the number of adopting users and adaptability. Therein, a “critical scale” of learning ability exists to promote the formation of leading technology: a large number of adopting users can promote the dominant technology’s formation by influencing the adaptive response of technology standards to the socio-technical landscape and the choice of technology standards by the socio-technical landscape. There is a minimum threshold and a maximum threshold for the role of adaptability in the dominant technology ’s formation. (iv) The socio-technical landscape can promote the leading technology’s shaping in the high-tech industry, and different elements have different effects. This study promotes research on the formation mechanism of dominant technology in the high-tech industry, presents new perspectives and methods for researchers, and provides essential enlightenment for managers to formulate technology strategies.

Classification of knowledge graph completeness measurement techniques
2024, 35(1):  154-162.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000150
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At present, although knowledge graphs have been widely used in various fields such as recommendation systems, question and answer systems, and intelligent search, there are always quality problems such as knowledge omissions and errors. Quality assessment and control, as an important means to ensure the quality of knowledge, can make the applications based on knowledge graphs more complete and more accurate by reasonably assessing the knowledge graphs and fixing and improving the quality problems at the same time. Therefore, as an indispensable part of the knowledge graph construction process, the results of quality assessment and control determine the usefulness of the knowledge graph. Among them, the assessment and enhancement of completeness, as an important part of the assessment and control phase, determine whether the knowledge graph can fully reflect objective phenomena and reveal potential connections among entities. In this paper, we review specific techniques of completeness assessment and classify completeness assessment techniques in terms of closed world assumptions, open world assumptions, and partial completeness assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to further promote the development of knowledge graph quality control and to lay the foundation for subsequent research on the completeness assessment of knowledge graphs by reviewing and classifying completeness assessment techniques.

DCEL: classifier fusion model for Android malware detection
Xiaolong XU, Shuai JIANG, Jinbo ZHAO, Xinheng WANG
2024, 35(1):  163-177.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000018
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The rapid growth of mobile applications, the popularity of the Android system and its openness have attracted many hackers and even criminals, who are creating lots of Android malware. However, the current methods of Android malware detection need a lot of time in the feature engineering phase. Furthermore, these models have the defects of low detection rate, high complexity, and poor practicability, etc. We analyze the Android malware samples, and the distribution of malware and benign software in application programming interface (API) calls, permissions, and other attributes. We classify the software’s threat levels based on the correlation of features. Then, we propose deep neural networks and convolutional neural networks with ensemble learning (DCEL), a new classifier fusion model for Android malware detection. First, DCEL preprocesses the malware data to remove redundant data, and converts the one-dimensional data into a two-dimensional gray image. Then, the ensemble learning approach is used to combine the deep neural network with the convolutional neural network, and the final classification results are obtained by voting on the prediction of each single classifier. Experiments based on the Drebin and Malgenome datasets show that compared with current state-of-art models, the proposed DCEL has a higher detection rate, higher recall rate, and lower computational cost.

Method for triangular fuzzy multiple attribute decision making based on two-dimensional density operator method
Youliang LIN, Wu LI, Gang LIU, Dong HUANG
2024, 35(1):  178-185.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000019
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Aiming at the triangular fuzzy (TF) multi-attribute decision making (MADM) problem with a preference for the distribution density of attribute (DDA), a decision making method with TF number two-dimensional density (TFTD) operator is proposed based on the density operator theory for the decision maker (DM). Firstly, a simple TF vector clustering method is proposed, which considers the feature of TF number and the geometric distance of vectors. Secondly, the least deviation sum of squares method is used in the program model to obtain the density weight vector. Then, two TFTD operators are defined, and the MADM method based on the TFTD operator is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the superiority of this method, which can not only solve the TF MADM problem with a preference for the DDA but also help the DM make an overall comparison.

Design of integral sliding mode guidance law based on disturbance observer
Jianping ZHOU, Wenjie ZHANG, Hang ZHOU, Qiang LI, Qunli XIA
2024, 35(1):  186-194.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000111
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With the increasing precision of guidance, the impact of autopilot dynamic characteristics and target maneuvering abilities on precision guidance is becoming more and more significant. In order to reduce or even eliminate the autopilot dynamic operation and the target maneuvering influence, this paper suggests a guidance system model involving a novel integral sliding mode guidance law (ISMGL). The method utilizes the dynamic characteristics and the impact angle, combined with a sliding mode surface scheme that includes the desired line-of-sight angle, line-of-sight angular rate, and second-order differential of the angular line-of-sight. At the same time, the evaluation scenario considere the target maneuvering in the system as the external disturbance, and the non-homogeneous disturbance observer estimate the target maneuvering as a compensation of the guidance command. The proposed system’s stability is proven based on the Lyapunov stability criterion. The simulations reveale that ISMGL effectively intercepted large maneuvering targets and present a smaller miss-distance compared with traditional linear sliding mode guidance laws and trajectory shaping guidance laws. Furthermore, ISMGL has a more accurate impact angle and fast convergence speed.

Design methodology of a mini-missile considering flight performance and guidance precision
Licong ZHANG, Chunlin GONG, Hua SU, Da Ronch ANDREA
2024, 35(1):  195-210.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000007
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The design of mini-missiles (MMs) presents several novel challenges. The stringent mission requirement to reach a target with a certain precision imposes a high guidance precision. The miniaturization of the size of MMs makes the design of the guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) have a larger-than-before impact on the main-body design (shape, motor, and layout design) and its design objective, i.e., flight performance. Pursuing a trade-off between flight performance and guidance precision, all the relevant interactions have to be accounted for in the design of the main body and the GNC system. Herein, a multi-objective and multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is proposed. Disciplines pertinent to motor, aerodynamics, layout, trajectory, flight dynamics, control, and guidance are included in the proposed MDO framework. The optimization problem seeks to maximize the range and minimize the guidance error. The problem is solved by using the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II. An optimum design that balances a longer range with a smaller guidance error is obtained. Finally, lessons learned about the design of the MM and insights into the trade-off between flight performance and guidance precision are given by comparing the optimum design to a design provided by the traditional approach.

Accurately tracking hypersonic gliding vehicles via an LEO mega-constellation in relay tracking mode
Zhao LI, Yidi WANG, Wei ZHENG
2024, 35(1):  211-221.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000078
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In order to effectively defend against the threats of the hypersonic gliding vehicles (HGVs), HGVs should be tracked as early as possible, which is beyond the capability of the ground-based radars. Being benefited by the developing mega-constellations in low-Earth orbit, this paper proposes a relay tracking mode to track HGVs to overcome the above problem. The whole tracking mission is composed of several tracking intervals with the same duration. Within each tracking interval, several appropriate satellites are dispatched to track the HGV. Satellites that are planned to take part in the tracking mission are selected by a new derived observability criterion. The tracking performances of the proposed tracking mode and the other two traditional tracking modes, including the stare and track-rate modes, are compared by simulation. The results show that the relay tracking mode can track the whole trajectory of a HGV, while the stare mode can only provide a very short tracking arc. Moreover, the relay tracking mode achieve higher tracking accuracy with fewer attitude controls than the track-rate mode.

A self-organization formation configuration based assignment probability and collision detection
Wei SONG, Tong WANG, Guangxin YANG, Peng ZHANG
2024, 35(1):  222-232.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000016
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The formation control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (multi-UAVs) has always been a research hotspot. Based on the straight line trajectory, a multi-UAVs target point assignment algorithm based on the assignment probability is proposed to achieve the shortest overall formation path of multi-UAVs with low complexity and reduce the energy consumption. In order to avoid the collision between UAVs in the formation process, the concept of safety ball is introduced, and the collision detection based on continuous motion of two time slots and the lane occupation detection after motion is proposed to avoid collision between UAVs. Based on the idea of game theory, a method of UAV motion form setting based on the maximization of interests is proposed, including the maximization of self-interest and the maximization of formation interest is proposed, so that multi-UAVs can complete the formation task quickly and reasonably with the linear trajectory assigned in advance. Finally, through simulation verification, the multi-UAVs target assignment algorithm based on the assignment probability proposed in this paper can effectively reduce the total path length, and the UAV motion selection method based on the maximization interests can effectively complete the task formation.

An extended state observer with adjustable bandwidth for measurement noise
Shihua ZHANG, Xiaohui QI, Sen YANG
2024, 35(1):  233-241.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000166
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In this paper, a bandwidth-adjustable extended state observer (ABESO) is proposed for the systems with measurement noise. It is known that increasing the bandwidth of the observer improves the tracking speed but tolerates noise, which conflicts with observation accuracy. Therefore, we introduce a bandwidth scaling factor such that ABESO is formulated to a 2-degree-of-freedom system. The observer gain is determined and the bandwidth scaling factor adjusts the bandwidth according to the tracking error. When the tracking error decreases, the bandwidth decreases to suppress the noise, otherwise the bandwidth does not change. It is proven that the error dynamics are bounded and converge in finite time. The relationship between the upper bound of the estimation error and the scaling factor is given. When the scaling factor is less than 1, the ABESO has higher estimation accuracy than the linear extended state observer (LESO). Simulations of an uncertain nonlinear system with compound disturbances show that the proposed ABESO can successfully estimate the total disturbance in noisy environments. The mean error of total disturbance of ABESO is 15.28% lower than that of LESO.

Robust design of sliding mode control for airship trajectory tracking with uncertainty and disturbance estimation
Muhammad WASIM, Ahsan ALI, Mohammad Ahmad CHOUDHRY, Inam Ul Hasan SHAIKH, Faisal SALEEM
2024, 35(1):  242-258.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2024.000017
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The robotic airship can provide a promising aerostatic platform for many potential applications. These applications require a precise autonomous trajectory tracking control for airship. Airship has a nonlinear and uncertain dynamics. It is prone to wind disturbances that offer a challenge for a trajectory tracking control design. This paper addresses the airship trajectory tracking problem having time varying reference path. A lumped parameter estimation approach under model uncertainties and wind disturbances is opted against distributed parameters. It uses extended Kalman filter (EKF) for uncertainty and disturbance estimation. The estimated parameters are used by sliding mode controller (SMC) for ultimate control of airship trajectory tracking. This comprehensive algorithm, EKF based SMC (ESMC), is used as a robust solution to track airship trajectory. The proposed estimator provides the estimates of wind disturbances as well as model uncertainty due to the mass matrix variations and aerodynamic model inaccuracies. The stability and convergence of the proposed method are investigated using the Lyapunov stability analysis. The simulation results show that the proposed method efficiently tracks the desired trajectory. The method solves the stability, convergence, and chattering problem of SMC under model uncertainties and wind disturbances.