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18 April 2023, Volume 34 Issue 2
A fine acquisition algorithm based on fast three-time FRFT for dynamic and weak GNSS signals
YI PAN, Sheng ZHANG, Xiao WANG, Manhao LIU, Yiran LUO
2023, 34(2):  259-269.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000017
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As high-dynamics and weak-signal are of two primary concerns of navigation using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, an acquisition algorithm based on three-time fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is presented to simplify the calculation effectively. Firstly, the correlation results similar to linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals are derived on the basis of the high dynamic GNSS signal model. Then, the principle of obtaining the optimum rotation angle is analyzed, which is measured by FRFT projection lengths with two selected rotation angles. Finally, Doppler shift, Doppler rate, and code phase are accurately estimated in a real-time and low signal to noise ratio (SNR) wireless communication system. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the fast FRFT algorithm can accurately estimate the high dynamic parameters by converting the traditional two-dimensional search process to only three times FRFT. While the acquisition performance is basically the same, the computational complexity and running time are greatly reduced, which is more conductive to practical application.

Recognition and interfere deceptive behavior based on inverse reinforcement learning and game theory
Yunxiu ZENG, Kai XU
2023, 34(2):  270-288.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000012
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In real-time strategy (RTS) games, the ability of recognizing other players’ goals is important for creating artifical intelligence (AI) players. However, most current goal recognition methods do not take the player ’s deceptive behavior into account which often occurs in RTS game scenarios, resulting in poor recognition results. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes goal recognition for deceptive agent, which is an extended goal recognition method applying the deductive reason method (from general to special) to model the deceptive agent’s behavioral strategy. First of all, the general deceptive behavior model is proposed to abstract features of deception, and then these features are applied to construct a behavior strategy that best matches the deceiver’s historical behavior data by the inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) method. Final, to interfere with the deceptive behavior implementation, we construct a game model to describe the confrontation scenario and the most effective interference measures.

DQN-based decentralized multi-agent JSAP resource allocation for UAV swarm communication
Jie LI, Xiaoyu DANG, Sai LI
2023, 34(2):  289-298.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000045
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It is essential to maximize capacity while satisfying the transmission time delay of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm communication system. In order to address this challenge, a dynamic decentralized optimization mechanism is presented for the realization of joint spectrum and power (JSAP) resource allocation based on deep Q-learning networks (DQNs). Each UAV to UAV (U2U) link is regarded as an agent that is capable of identifying the optimal spectrum and power to communicate with one another. The convolutional neural network, target network, and experience replay are adopted while training. The findings of the simulation indicate that the proposed method has the potential to improve both communication capacity and probability of successful data transmission when compared with random centralized assignment and multichannel access methods.

Sparsity-based efficient simulation of cluster targets electromagnetic scattering
Yuguang TIAN, Yixin LIU, Xuan CHEN, Penghui CHEN, Jun WANG, Junwen CHEN
2023, 34(2):  299-306.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000055
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An efficient and real-time simulation method is proposed for the dynamic electromagnetic characteristics of cluster targets to meet the requirements of engineering practical applications. First, the coordinate transformation method is used to establish a geometric model of the observation scene, which is described by the azimuth angles and elevation angles of the radar in the target reference frame and the attitude angles of the target in the radar reference frame. Then, an approach for dynamic electromagnetic scattering simulation is proposed. Finally, a fast-computing method based on sparsity in the time domain, space domain, and frequency domain is proposed. The method analyzes the sparsity-based dynamic scattering characteristic of the typical cluster targets. The error between the sparsity-based method and the benchmark is small, proving the effectiveness of the proposed method.

FOLMS-AMDCNet: an automatic recognition scheme for multiple-antenna OFDM systems
Yuyuan ZHANG, Wenjun YAN, Limin ZHANG, Qing LING
2023, 34(2):  307-323.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000027
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The existing recognition algorithms of space-time block code (STBC) for multi-antenna (MA) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems use feature extraction and hypothesis testing to identify the signal types in a complex communication environment. However, owing to the restrictions on the prior information and channel conditions, these existing algorithms cannot perform well under strong interference and non-cooperative communication conditions. To overcome these defects, this study introduces deep learning into the STBC-OFDM signal recognition field and proposes a recognition method based on the fourth-order lag moment spectrum (FOLMS) and attention-guided multi-scale dilated convolution network (AMDCNet). The fourth-order lag moment vectors of the received signals are calculated, and vectors are stitched to form two-dimensional FOLMS, which is used as the input of the deep learning-based model. Then, the multi-scale dilated convolution is used to extract the details of images at different scales, and a convolutional block attention module (CBAM) is introduced to construct the attention-guided multi-scale dilated convolution module (AMDCM) to make the network be more focused on the target area and obtian the multi-scale guided features. Finally, the concatenate fusion, residual block and fully-connected layers are applied to acquire the STBC-OFDM signal types. Simulation experiments show that the average recognition probability of the proposed method at ?12 dB is higher than 98%. Compared with the existing algorithms, the recognition performance of the proposed method is significantly improved and has good adaptability to environments with strong disturbances. In addition, the proposed deep learning-based model can directly identify the pre-processed FOLMS samples without a priori information on channel and noise, which is more suitable for non-cooperative communication systems than the existing algorithms.

Threshold-type memristor-based crossbar array design and its application in handwritten digit recognition
Qingjian LI, Yan LIANG, Zhenzhou LU, Guangyi WANG
2023, 34(2):  324-334.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000018
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Neuromorphic computing simulates the operation of biological brain function for information processing and can potentially solve the bottleneck of the Von Neumann architecture. Inspired by the real characteristics of physical memristive devices, we propose a threshold-type nonlinear voltage-controlled memristor mathematical model which is used to design a novel memristor-based crossbar array. The presented crossbar array can simulate the synaptic weight in real number field rather than only positive number field. Theoretical analysis and simulation results of a 2×2 image inversion operation validate the feasibility of the proposed crossbar array and the necessary training and inference functions. Finally, the presented crossbar array is used to construct the neural network and then applied in the handwritten digit recognition. The Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) database is adopted to train this neural network and it achieves a satisfactory accuracy.

GNSS array receiver faced with overloaded interferences: anti-jamming performance and the incident directions of interferences
Jie WANG, Wenxiang LIU, Feiqiang CHEN, Zukun LU, Gang OU
2023, 34(2):  335-341.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2022.000072
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Anti-jamming solutions based on antenna arrays enhance the anti-jamming ability and the robustness of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver remarkably. However, the performance of the receiver will deteriorate significantly in the overloaded interferences scenario. We define the overloaded interferences scenario as where the number of interferences is more than or equal to the number of antenna arrays elements. In this paper, the effect mechanism of interferences with different incident directions is found by studying the anti-jamming performance of the adaptive space filter. The theoretical analysis and conclusions, which are first validated through numerical examples, reveal the relationships between the optimal weight vector and the eigenvectors of the input signal autocorrelation matrix, the relationships between the interference cancellation ratio (ICR), the signal to interference and noise power ratio (SINR) of the adaptive space filter output and the number of interferences, the eigenvalues of the input signal autocorrelation matrix. In addition, two simulation experiments are utilized to further corroborate the theoretical findings through soft anti-jamming receiver. The simulation results match well with the theoretical analysis results, thus validating the effect mechanism of overloaded interferences. The simulation results show that, for a four elements circular array, the performance difference is up to 19 dB with different incident directions of interferences. Anti-jamming performance evaluation and jamming deployment optimization can obtain more accurate and efficient results by using the conclusions.

Polarization characteristics and controllability mechanism of passive scattering elements
Jie GUO, Hongcheng YIN, Liang MAN, Xin LI
2023, 34(2):  342-349.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000043
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Polarization feature is one of the important features of radar targets, which has been used in many fields. In this paper, the grid models of some typical foreign moving targets are constructed on the simulation platform, such as glider, cruiser, fixed wing aircraft, and rotorcraft. The electromagnetic scattering characteristics of the moving platforms under the incidence of circular polarization waves are calculated. The typical polarization characteristics which the orthogonal and in-phase components have in the echoes are analyzed and proved. Based on the polarization scattering matrix (PSM) theory, from the point of view of the physical reproduction, the technical status quo that the existing technical approaches are difficult to realize the passive simulation of polarization characteristic of the target is summarized. To solve this problem, combined with the vector synthesis law, the realization mechanism of controllable polarization characteristic of target echoes is proposed, the analytical expressions of polarization control matrix and polarization ratio are deduced, and the controllability of polarization ratio feature in the case of circular polarization is verified by simulation calculation.

DHSEGATs: distance and hop-wise structures encoding enhanced graph attention networks
Zhiguo HUANG
2023, 34(2):  350-359.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000057
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Numerous works prove that existing neighbor-averaging graph neural networks (GNNs) cannot efficiently catch structure features, and many works show that injecting structure, distance, position, or spatial features can significantly improve the performance of GNNs, however, injecting high-level structure and distance into GNNs is an intuitive but untouched idea. This work sheds light on this issue and proposes a scheme to enhance graph attention networks (GATs) by encoding distance and hop-wise structure statistics. Firstly, the hop-wise structure and distributional distance information are extracted based on several hop-wise ego-nets of every target node. Secondly, the derived structure information, distance information, and intrinsic features are encoded into the same vector space and then added together to get initial embedding vectors. Thirdly, the derived embedding vectors are fed into GATs, such as GAT and adaptive graph diffusion network (AGDN) to get the soft labels. Fourthly, the soft labels are fed into correct and smooth (C&S) to conduct label propagation and get final predictions. Experiments show that the distance and hop-wise structures encoding enhanced graph attention networks (DHSEGATs) achieve a competitive result.

Deep reinforcement learning for UAV swarm rendezvous behavior
Yaozhong ZHANG, Yike LI, Zhuoran WU, Jialin XU
2023, 34(2):  360-373.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000056
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The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm technology is one of the research hotspots in recent years. With the continuous improvement of autonomous intelligence of UAV, the swarm technology of UAV will become one of the main trends of UAV development in the future. This paper studies the behavior decision-making process of UAV swarm rendezvous task based on the double deep Q network (DDQN) algorithm. We design a guided reward function to effectively solve the problem of algorithm convergence caused by the sparse return problem in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) for the long period task. We also propose the concept of temporary storage area, optimizing the memory playback unit of the traditional DDQN algorithm, improving the convergence speed of the algorithm, and speeding up the training process of the algorithm. Different from traditional task environment, this paper establishes a continuous state-space task environment model to improve the authentication process of UAV task environment. Based on the DDQN algorithm, the collaborative tasks of UAV swarm in different task scenarios are trained. The experimental results validate that the DDQN algorithm is efficient in terms of training UAV swarm to complete the given collaborative tasks while meeting the requirements of UAV swarm for centralization and autonomy, and improving the intelligence of UAV swarm collaborative task execution. The simulation results show that after training, the proposed UAV swarm can carry out the rendezvous task well, and the success rate of the mission reaches 90%.

Network-based structure optimization method of the anti-aircraft system
Qingsong ZHAO, Junyi DING, Jichao LI, Huachao LI, Boyuan XIA
2023, 34(2):  374-395.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000019
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The anti-aircraft system plays an irreplaceable role in modern combat. An anti-aircraft system consists of various types of functional entities interacting to destroy the hostile aircraft moving in high speed. The connecting structure of combat entities in it is of great importance for supporting the normal process of the system. In this paper, we explore the optimizing strategy of the structure of the anti-aircraft network by establishing extra communication channels between the combat entities. Firstly, the thought of combat network model (CNM) is borrowed to model the anti-aircraft system as a heterogeneous network. Secondly, the optimization objectives are determined as the survivability and the accuracy of the system. To specify these objectives, the information chain and accuracy chain are constructed based on CNM. The causal strength (CAST) logic and influence network (IN) are introduced to illustrate the establishment of the accuracy chain. Thirdly, the optimization constraints are discussed and set in three aspects: time, connection feasibility and budget. The time constraint network (TCN) is introduced to construct the timing chain and help to detect the timing consistency. Then, the process of the multi-objective optimization of the structure of the anti-aircraft system is designed. Finally, a simulation is conducted to prove the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. Non-dominated sorting based genetic algorithm-II (NSGA2) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem and two other algorithms including non-dominated sorting based genetic algorithm-III (NSGA3) and strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm-II (SPEA2) are employed as comparisons. The deciders and system builders can make the anti-aircraft system improved in the survivability and accuracy in the combat reality.

Optimization of extended warranty cost for multi-component systems with economic dependence based on group maintenance
Rongcai WANG, Enzhi DONG, Zhonghua CHENG, Qian WANG
2023, 34(2):  396-407.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000009
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During extended warranty (EW) period, maintenance events play a key role in controlling the product systems within normal operations. However, the modelling of failure process and maintenance optimization is complicated owing to the complex features of the product system, namely, components of the multi-component system are interdependent with each other in some form. For the purpose of optimizing the EW pricing decision of the multi-component system scientifically and rationally, taking the series multi-component system with economic dependence sold with EW policy as a research object, this paper optimizes the imperfect preventive maintenance (PM) strategy from the standpoint of EW cost. Taking into consideration adjusting the PM moments of the components in the system, a group maintenance model is developed, in which the system is repaired preventively in accordance with a specified PM base interval. In order to compare with the system EW cost before group maintenance, the system EW cost model before group maintenance is developed. Numerical example demonstrates that offering group maintenance programs can reduce EW cost of the system to a great extent, thereby reducing the EW price, which proves to be a win-win strategy to manufacturers and users.

IFCEM based recognition method for target with interval-overlapped hybrid attributes
Xin GUAN, Shuangming LI, Guidong SUN, Haibin WANG
2023, 34(2):  408-421.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2022.000131
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When the attributes of unknown targets are not just numerical attributes, but hybrid attributes containing linguistic attributes, the existing recognition methods are not effective. In addition, it is more difficult to identify the unknown targets densely distributed in the feature space, especially when there is interval overlap between attribute measurements of different target classes. To address these problems, a novel method based on intuitionistic fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (IFCEM) is proposed. For numerical attributes, targets in the database are divided into individual classes and overlapping classes, and for linguistic attributes, continuous interval-valued linguistic term set (CIVLTS) is used to describe target characteristic. A cloud model-based method and an area-based method are proposed to obtain intuitionistic fuzzy decision information of query target on numerical attributes and linguistic attributes respectively. An improved inverse weighted kernel fuzzy c-means (IWK-FCM) algorithm is proposed for solution of attribute weight vector. The possibility matrix is applied to determine the identity and category of query target. Finally, a case study composed of parameter sensitivity analysis, recognition accuracy analysis. and comparison with other methods, is taken to verify the superiority of the proposed method.

Pythagorean probabilistic hesitant triangular fuzzy aggregation operators with applications in multiple attribute decision making
Fuping LIAO, Wu LI, Gang LIU, Xiaoqiang ZHOU
2023, 34(2):  422-438.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000015
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As a generalization of fuzzy set, hesitant probabilistic fuzzy set and pythagorean triangular fuzzy set have their own unique advantages in describing decision information. As modern socioeconomic decision-making problems are becoming more and more complex, it also becomes more and more difficult to appropriately depict decision makers’ cognitive information in decision-making process. In order to describe the decision information more comprehensively, we define a pythagorean probabilistic hesitant triangular fuzzy set (PPHTFS) by combining the pythagorean triangular fuzzy set and the probabilistic hesitant fuzzy set. Firstly, the basic operation and scoring function of the pythagorean probabilistic hesitant triangular fuzzy element (PPHTFE) are proposed, and the comparison rule of two PPHTFEs is given. Then, some pythagorean probabilistic hesitant triangular fuzzy aggregation operators are developed, and their properties are also studied. Finally, a multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) model is constructed based on the proposed operators under the pythagorean probabilistic hesitant triangular fuzzy information, and an illustration example is given to demonstrate the practicability and validity of the proposed decision-making method.

A review of mobile robot motion planning methods: from classical motion planning workflows to reinforcement learning-based architectures
Lu DONG, Zichen HE, Chunwei SONG, Changyin SUN
2023, 34(2):  439-459.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000051
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Motion planning is critical to realize the autonomous operation of mobile robots. As the complexity and randomness of robot application scenarios increase, the planning capability of the classical hierarchical motion planners is challenged. With the development of machine learning, the deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based motion planner has gradually become a research hotspot due to its several advantageous feature. The DRL-based motion planner is model-free and does not rely on the prior structured map. Most importantly, the DRL-based motion planner achieves the unification of the global planner and the local planner. In this paper, we provide a systematic review of various motion planning methods. Firstly, we summarize the representative and state-of-the-art works for each submodule of the classical motion planning architecture and analyze their performance features. Then, we concentrate on summarizing reinforcement learning (RL)-based motion planning approaches, including motion planners combined with RL improvements, map-free RL-based motion planners, and multi-robot cooperative planning methods. Finally, we analyze the urgent challenges faced by these mainstream RL-based motion planners in detail, review some state-of-the-art works for these issues, and propose suggestions for future research.

Relational graph location network for multi-view image localization
Yukun YANG, Xiangdong LIU
2023, 34(2):  460-468.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000050
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In multi-view image localization task, the features of the images captured from different views should be fused properly. This paper considers the classification-based image localization problem. We propose the relational graph location network (RGLN) to perform this task. In this network, we propose a heterogeneous graph construction approach for graph classification tasks, which aims to describe the location in a more appropriate way, thereby improving the expression ability of the location representation module. Experiments show that the expression ability of the proposed graph construction approach outperforms the compared methods by a large margin. In addition, the proposed localization method outperforms the compared localization methods by around 1.7% in terms of meter-level accuracy.

Finite-time fault-tolerant control of teleoperating cyber physical system against faults
Chengwei PAN, Xia LIU, Yong CHEN, Meng LI
2023, 34(2):  469-478.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000044
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This paper studies a finite-time adaptive fractional-order fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme for the slave position tracking of the teleoperating cyber physical system (TCPS) with external disturbances and actuator faults. Based on the fractional Lyapunov stability theory and the finite-time stability theory, a fractional-order nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (FO-NFTSM) control law is proposed to promote the tracking and fault tolerance performance of the considered system. Meanwhile, the adaptive fractional-order update laws are designed to cope with the unknown upper bounds of the unknown actuator faults and external disturbances. Furthermore, the finite-time stability of the closed-loop system is proved. Finally, comparison simulation results are also provided to show the validity and the advantages of the proposed techniques.

Design and analysis of active disturbance rejection control for time-delay systems using frequency-sweeping
Yongshuai WANG, Zengqiang CHEN, Mingwei SUN, Qinglin SUN
2023, 34(2):  479-491.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000046
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For the typical first-order systems with time-delay, this paper explors the control capability of linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC). Firstly, the critical time-delay of LADRC is analyzed using the frequency-sweeping method and the Routh criterion, and the stable time-delay interval starting from zero is accurately obtained, which reveals the limitations of general LADRC on large time-delay. Then in view of the large time-delay, an LADRC controller is developed and verified to be effective, along with the robustness analysis. Finally, numerical simulations show the accuracy of critical time-delay, and demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller compared with other modified LADRCs.

Minimum eigenvalue based adaptive fault compensation for hypersonic vehicles
Yajie MA, Bin JIANG, Hao REN
2023, 34(2):  492-500.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000039
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The attitude tracking control problem is addressed for hypersonic vehicles under actuator faults that may cause an uncertain time-varying control gain matrix. An adaptive compensation scheme is developed to ensure system stability and asymptotic tracking properties, including a kinematic control signal and a dynamic control signal. To deal with the uncertainties of the control gain matrix, a new positive definite one is constructed. The minimum eigenvalue of such a new control gain matrix is estimated. Simulation results of application to an X-33 vehicle model verify the effectiveness of the proposed minimum eigenvalue based adaptive fault compensation scheme.

Dynamic event-triggered formation control of second-order nonholonomic systems
Xiaoyu WANG, Sijia SUN, Feng XIAO, Mei YU
2023, 34(2):  501-514.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000049
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In this paper, the formation control problem of second-order nonholonomic mobile robot systems is investigated in a dynamic event-triggered scheme. Event-triggered control protocols combined with persistent excitation (PE) conditions are presented. In event-detecting processes, an inactive time is introduced after each sampling instant, which can ensure a positive minimum sampling interval. To increase the flexibility of the event-triggered scheme, internal dynamic variables are included in event-triggering conditions. Moreover, the dynamic event-triggered scheme plays an important role in increasing the lengths of time intervals between any two consecutive events. In addition, event-triggered control protocols without forward and angular velocities are also presented based on approximate-differentiation (low-pass) filters. The asymptotic convergence results are given based on a nested Matrosov theorem and artificial sampling methods.

An anomaly detection method for spacecraft solar arrays based on the ILS-SVM model
Yu WANG, Tao ZHANG, Jianjiang HUI, Yajie LIU
2023, 34(2):  515-529.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000011
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Solar arrays are important and indispensable parts of spacecraft and provide energy support for spacecraft to operate in orbit and complete on-orbit missions. When a spacecraft is in orbit, because the solar array is exposed to the harsh space environment, with increasing working time, the performance of its internal electronic components gradually degrade until abnormal damage occurs. This damage makes solar array power generation unable to fully meet the energy demand of a spacecraft. Therefore, timely and accurate detection of solar array anomalies is of great significance for the on-orbit operation and maintenance management of spacecraft. In this paper, we propose an anomaly detection method for spacecraft solar arrays based on the integrated least squares support vector machine (ILS-SVM) model: it selects correlated telemetry data from spacecraft solar arrays to form a training set and extracts n groups of training subsets from this set, then gets n corresponding least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) submodels by training on these training subsets, respectively; after that, the ILS-SVM model is obtained by integrating these submodels through a weighting operation to increase the prediction accuracy and so on; finally, based on the obtained ILS-SVM model, a parameter-free and unsupervised anomaly determination method is proposed to detect the health status of solar arrays. We use the telemetry data set from a satellite in orbit to carry out experimental verification and find that the proposed method can diagnose solar array anomalies in time and can capture the signs before a solar array anomaly occurs, which reflects the applicability of the method.

Remaining useful life prediction of aero-engines based on random-coefficient regression model considering random failure threshold
Fengfei WANG, Shengjin TANG, Liang LI, Xiaoyan SUN, Chuanqiang YU, Xiaosheng SI
2023, 34(2):  530-542.  doi:10.23919/JSEE.2023.000042
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Remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is one of the most crucial components in prognostics and health management (PHM) of aero-engines. This paper proposes an RUL prediction method of aero-engines considering the randomness of failure threshold. Firstly, a random-coefficient regression (RCR) model is used to model the degradation process of aero-engines. Then, the RUL distribution based on fixed failure threshold is derived. The prior parameters of the degradation model are calculated by a two-step maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method and the random coefficient is updated in real time under the Bayesian framework. The failure threshold in this paper is defined by the actual degradation process of aero-engines. After that, a expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is proposed to estimate the underlying failure threshold of aero-engines. In addition, the conditional probability is used to satisfy the limitation of failure threshold. Then, based on above results, an analytical expression of RUL distribution of aero-engines based on the RCR model considering random failure threshold (RFT) is derived in a closed-form. Finally, a case study of turbofan engine is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the RUL prediction method and the parameters estimation method of failure threshold proposed.